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with corresponding sensitivity for a lower energy 4 GeV NF. The NF would
extend the "physics reach" in sin22013 -space down to O(10-3 - 10-4).
3. Design and R&D
Over the last decade NF R&D has been advanced by a series of design and
simulation studies complemented by component development and experimental
tests. Studies' in the U.S. established viability, defined an initial R&D program,
and produced a first NF cost estimate. The later studies improved the design to
increase performance and reduce cost. During this period NF R&D also became
"internationalized". In 2006 the International Scoping Study (ISS), hosted by
RAL in the U.K., produced physics', accelerator7, and detector? reports.
3.1. Proton Beam and Target
At the NF front-end the proton source must deliver short high-intensity multi-
GeV bunches onto a target. The ISS baseline parameters are:
(i) Proton energy 5 < EP < 10 GeV, chosen to maximize 7r
production at fixed beam power.
(ii) Bunch length 6t < 3ns, needed because the downstream phase
rotation channel requires initially short muon bunches.
(iii) Beam power = 4MW.
(iv) A liquid Hg-jet target injected into a 20T solenoid. A high-Z target
is chosen to maximize 7t* production. The 20T solenoid radially
confines essentially all 7t* coming from the target. The Hg-jet
choice avoids the shock and radiation damage related target-
lifetime issues that arise in a solid target. A system of solenoids
downstream of the target matches the 20T solenoid into a larger
bore 2T decay channel.
Multi-GeV multi-MW proton source designs are now being developed at a
number of laboratories around the World, motivated by a broad range of
interests which include, for example, high-intensity convention neutrino beams.
Proton source R&D is being pursued within this broader context. We can
anticipate that at least one viable design for a NF-class proton source will exist
within a few years. Target R&D has also advanced in recent years, and has
culminated in the Mercury Intense Target experiment (MERIT9) which has
successfully demonstrated a Hg-jet injected into a 15T solenoid and hit by a
suitably intense beam from the CERN PS. The jet was viewed by high speed
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Chen, Bin; Lin, Jung-Fu; Chen, Jiuhua; Zhang, Hengzhong & Zeng, Qiaoshi. Synchrotron-based high-pressure research in materials science, article, June 1, 2016; (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc934138/m1/4/: accessed November 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.