Factors Effecting the Fate and Transport of CL-20 in the Vadose Zone and Groundwater: Final Report 2002 - 2004 SERDP Project CP-1255

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This SERDP-funded project was initiated to investigate the fate of CL-20 in the subsurface environment, with a focus on identification and quantification of geochemical and microbial reactions of CL-20. CL-20 can be released to the surface and subsurface terrestrial environment by: a) manufacturing processes, b) munition storage, and c) use with low order detonation or unexploded ordnance. The risk of far-field subsurface migration was assessed through labora-tory experiments with a variety of sediments and subsurface materials to quantify processes that control CL-20 sorption-limited migration and degradation. Results of this study show that CL-20 will exhibit differing behavior in the subsurface ... continued below

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Szecsody, James E.; Riley, Robert G.; Devary, Brooks J.; Girvin, Donald C.; Resch, Charles T.; Campbell, James A. et al. June 1, 2005.

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  • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (U.S.)
    Publisher Info: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
    Place of Publication: Richland, Washington

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Description

This SERDP-funded project was initiated to investigate the fate of CL-20 in the subsurface environment, with a focus on identification and quantification of geochemical and microbial reactions of CL-20. CL-20 can be released to the surface and subsurface terrestrial environment by: a) manufacturing processes, b) munition storage, and c) use with low order detonation or unexploded ordnance. The risk of far-field subsurface migration was assessed through labora-tory experiments with a variety of sediments and subsurface materials to quantify processes that control CL-20 sorption-limited migration and degradation. Results of this study show that CL-20 will exhibit differing behavior in the subsurface terrestrial environment: 1. CL-20 on the sediment surface will photodegrade and interact with plants/animals (described in other SERDP projects CU 1254, 1256). CL-20 will exhibit greater sorption in humid sediments to organic matter. Transport will be solubility limited (i.e., low CL-20 aqueous solubility). 2. CL-20 infiltration into soils (<2 m) from spills will be subject to sorption to soil organic matter (if present), and low to high biodegradation rates (weeks to years) depending on the microbial population (greater in humid environment). 3. CL-20 in the vadose zone (>2 m) will be, in most cases, subject to low sorption and low degradation rates, so would persist in the subsurface environment and be at risk for deep migration. Low water content in arid regions will result in a decrease in both sorption and the degradation rate. Measured degradation rates in unsaturated sediments of years would result in significant subsurface migration distances. 4. CL-20 in groundwater will be subject to some sorption but likely very slow degradation rates. CL-20 sorption will be greater than RDX. Most CL-20 degradation will be abiotic (ferrous iron and other transition metals), because most deep subsurface systems have extremely low natural microbial populations. Degradation rates will range from weeks (iron reducing systems) to years. Although CL-20 will move rapidly through most sediments in the terrestrial environment, subsurface remediation can be utilized for cleanup. Transformation of CL-20 to intermediates can be rapidly accomplished under: a) reducing conditions (CL-20 4.1 min. half-life, RDX 18 min. half-life), b) alkaline (pH >10) conditions, and c) bioremediation with added nutrients. CL-20 degradation to intermediates may be insufficient to mitigate environmental impact, as the toxicity of many of these compounds is unknown. Biostimulation in oxic to reducing systems by carbon and nutrient addition can mineralize CL-20, with the most rapid rates occurring under reducing conditions.

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  • Report No.: PNNL-15245
  • Grant Number: AC05-76RL01830
  • DOI: 10.2172/969747 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 969747
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc933590

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  • June 1, 2005

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Nov. 13, 2016, 7:26 p.m.

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  • Nov. 18, 2016, 3:49 p.m.

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Szecsody, James E.; Riley, Robert G.; Devary, Brooks J.; Girvin, Donald C.; Resch, Charles T.; Campbell, James A. et al. Factors Effecting the Fate and Transport of CL-20 in the Vadose Zone and Groundwater: Final Report 2002 - 2004 SERDP Project CP-1255, report, June 1, 2005; Richland, Washington. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc933590/: accessed October 17, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.