The Genome Sequence of the psychrophilic archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii: the Role of Genome Evolution in Cold-adaptation

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Psychrophilic archaea are abundant and perform critical roles throughout the Earth's expansive cold biosphere. Here we report the first complete genome sequence for a psychrophilic methanogenic archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii. The genome sequence was manually annotated including the use of a five tiered Evidence Rating system that ranked annotations from Evidence Rating (ER) 1 (gene product experimentally characterized from the parent organism) to ER5 (hypothetical gene product) to provide a rapid means of assessing the certainty of gene function predictions. The genome is characterized by a higher level of aberrant sequence composition (51%) than any other archaeon. In comparison to hyper/thermophilic ... continued below

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Allen, Michelle A.; Lauro, Federico M.; Williams, Timothy J.; Burg, Dominic; Siddiqui, Khawar S.; De Francisci, David et al. April 1, 2009.

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Psychrophilic archaea are abundant and perform critical roles throughout the Earth's expansive cold biosphere. Here we report the first complete genome sequence for a psychrophilic methanogenic archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii. The genome sequence was manually annotated including the use of a five tiered Evidence Rating system that ranked annotations from Evidence Rating (ER) 1 (gene product experimentally characterized from the parent organism) to ER5 (hypothetical gene product) to provide a rapid means of assessing the certainty of gene function predictions. The genome is characterized by a higher level of aberrant sequence composition (51%) than any other archaeon. In comparison to hyper/thermophilic archaea which are subject to selection of synonymous codon usage, M. burtonii has evolved cold adaptation through a genomic capacity to accommodate highly skewed amino acid content, while retaining codon usage in common with its mesophilic Methanosarcina cousins. Polysaccharide biosynthesis genes comprise at least 3.3% of protein coding genes in the genome, and Cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis COG genes are over-represented. Likewise, signal transduction (COG category T) genes are over-represented and M. burtonii has a high 'IQ' (a measure of adaptive potential) compared to many methanogens. Numerous genes in these two over-represented COG categories appear to have been acquired from {var_epsilon}- and {delta}-proteobacteria, as do specific genes involved in central metabolism such as a novel B form of aconitase. Transposases also distinguish M. burtonii from other archaea, and their genomic characteristics indicate they play an important role in evolving the M. burtonii genome. Our study reveals a capacity for this model psychrophile to evolve through genome plasticity (including nucleotide skew, horizontal gene transfer and transposase activity) that enables adaptation to the cold, and to the biological and physical changes that have occurred over the last several thousand years as it adapted from a marine, to an Antarctic lake environment.

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  • Journal Name: ISME Journal

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  • Report No.: LBNL-1968E
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231
  • DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2009.45 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 961598
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc933163

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  • April 1, 2009

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  • Nov. 13, 2016, 7:26 p.m.

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  • Nov. 18, 2016, 2:46 p.m.

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Allen, Michelle A.; Lauro, Federico M.; Williams, Timothy J.; Burg, Dominic; Siddiqui, Khawar S.; De Francisci, David et al. The Genome Sequence of the psychrophilic archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii: the Role of Genome Evolution in Cold-adaptation, article, April 1, 2009; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc933163/: accessed January 19, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.