Operating Procedure Changes to Improve Antiproton Production at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider Page: 1 of 4
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OPERATING PROCEDURE CHANGES TO IMPROVE ANTIPROTON
PRODUCTION AT THE FERMILAB TEVATRON COLLIDER*
B. Drendel#, J. P. Morgan, D. Vander Meulen, FNAL, Batavia, IL 60510, U.S.A.
Since the start of Fermilab Collider Run II in 2001, the
maximum weekly antiproton accumulation rate has
increased from 400 x 1010 Pbars/week to approximately
3,700 x 1010 Pbars/week. There are many factors
contributing to this increase, one of which involves
changes to operational procedures that have streamlined
and automated Antiproton Source production. Automation
has been added to the beam line orbit control, stochastic
cooling power level management, and RF settings. In
addition, daily tuning efforts have been streamlined by
implementing sequencer driven tuning software.
The Antiproton Source creates antiprotons for Tevatron
Collider Run II operations as follows.
* Pulses of 120 GeV proton beam from the Main
Injector travel through the P1, P2 and APi beam
lines every 2.2 seconds before striking a nickel
* Downstream of the target, 8 GeV negatively
charged secondaries are focused and directed down
the AP2 line. They are then injected into the
Debuncher ring, where only antiprotons survive
after the first hundred revolutions.
* The momentum spread and transverse size are
reduced by RF and stochastic cooling systems
before the beam is transferred to the Accumulator
via the D/A line.
* The 8 GeV antiprotons are momentum cooled in
the Accumulator and are collected into a region
known as the core.
* The collection of beam in the Accumulator is
called the stack.
* The optimal settings for the stochastic cooling
systems change as the beam in the stack grows.
* When approximately 25-30 x 1010 antiprotons are
accumulated, antiprotons are transferred to the
Recycler storage ring via the Main Injector.
INCREASED PBAR PRODUCTION
Antiproton production has increased steadily over the last
three years. Figure 1 shows the weekly antiproton
production over time. Each data point represents the
number of antiprotons produced in one week. In January
2006, the most antiprotons produced in a week were
1,707.73 x 1010, or just under 250 x 1010 per day. In
February 2009, the best week yielded 3,723.85 x 1010
antiprotons, which is over 530 x 1010 antiprotons per day.
*Operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-
AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy
In effect, the Antiproton Source has doubled the rate at
which antiprotons are produced in just three years.
.100 Weei!yAntiproton Production
1111- - -
2501 - - . . '"-
21-0 - 17-.'
-- . * -- - .
Jum-2101 Jua- Ja-2HI Joa-21117 Jan-011
Figure 1: Weekly Pbar production over time.
There are many factors that have contributed to the
increase in antiproton production . One of them is the
creation of operational procedures that have streamlined
and automated Antiproton Source production.
Automation has been added to a number of operational
tasks related to both stacking antiprotons as well as
transferring antiprotons to the Recycler. A significant
portion of the automation is the implementation of Rapid
Transfers . Newly automated tasks related to stacking
antiprotons are summarized in Table 1.
Table 1: Automation Tools
Tool Implementation Function
Beam Line Application Active beam line steering
Tuner control using BPM's.
Core Application Core momentum cooling
Babysitter power regulation.
Debuncher Application Automatic recovery of
Babysitter tripped Debuncher TWT's.
Stacktail ACL script Regulates stacktail
monitor momentum cooling power.
Ion Flusher ACL script Regulates stabilizing RF
settings for larger stacks.
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Drendel, B.; Morgan, J.P.; Vander Meulen, D. & /Fermilab. Operating Procedure Changes to Improve Antiproton Production at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, article, April 1, 2009; Batavia, Illinois. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc931528/m1/1/: accessed January 18, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.