Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture Metadata

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  • Main Title Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture


  • Author: Khalil, M. Aslam K.
    Creator Type: Personal


  • Sponsor: United States. Department of Energy. Office of Science.
    Contributor Type: Organization


  • Name: Portland State University, Portland, Oregon
    Place of Publication: United States


  • Creation: 2009-07-16


  • English


  • Content Description: This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.


  • Keyword: Oxidation
  • Keyword: Rice Agriculture
  • Keyword: Spatial Resolution
  • Keyword: China
  • Keyword: Organic Matter
  • Keyword: Mass Balance
  • Keyword: Agriculture
  • Keyword: Greenhouse Gases
  • Keyword: Greenhouse Gas
  • Keyword: Methane
  • Keyword: Ch4
  • Keyword: Resolution
  • Keyword: Water Resources Methane
  • Keyword: Greenhouse Effect
  • Keyword: Fertilizers
  • Keyword: Trends
  • Keyword: Global Source
  • Keyword: Nitrogen
  • Keyword: Standard Model
  • Keyword: Transport
  • Keyword: Methane
  • Keyword: N2O
  • Keyword: Gases
  • Keyword: Production
  • STI Subject Categories: 54 Environmental Sciences
  • Keyword: Rice
  • Keyword: Nitrous Oxide


  • Name: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports
    Code: OSTI


  • Name: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
    Code: UNTGD

Resource Type

  • Report


  • Text


  • Report No.: DOE/ER/63913-1
  • Grant Number: FG02-04ER63913
  • DOI: 10.2172/959124
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 959124
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc929925