Raman spectroscopic studies of chemical speciation in calcium chloride melts

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Raman spectroscopy was applied to CaCl2 melts at 900 degrees C under both non-electrolyzed and electrolyzed conditions. The later used titania cathodes supplied by TIMET, Inc. and graphite anodes. Use of pulse-gating to collect the Raman spectra successfully eliminated any interference from black-body radiation and other stray light. The spectrum of molten CaCl2 exhibited no distinct, resolvable bands that could be correlated with a calcium chloride complex similar to MgCl42- in MgCl2 melts. Rather, the low frequency region of the spectrum was dominated by a broad “tail” arising from collective oscillations of both charge and mass in the molten salt ... continued below

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Windisch, Charles F. & Lavender, Curt A. February 1, 2005.

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Raman spectroscopy was applied to CaCl2 melts at 900 degrees C under both non-electrolyzed and electrolyzed conditions. The later used titania cathodes supplied by TIMET, Inc. and graphite anodes. Use of pulse-gating to collect the Raman spectra successfully eliminated any interference from black-body radiation and other stray light. The spectrum of molten CaCl2 exhibited no distinct, resolvable bands that could be correlated with a calcium chloride complex similar to MgCl42- in MgCl2 melts. Rather, the low frequency region of the spectrum was dominated by a broad “tail” arising from collective oscillations of both charge and mass in the molten salt “network.” Additions of both CaO and Ca at concentrations of a percent or two resulted in no new features in the spectra. Addition of CO2, both chemically and via electrolysis at concentrations dictated by stability and solubility at 900 degrees C and 1 bar pressure, also produced no new bands that could be correlated with either dissolved CO2 or the carbonate ion. These results indicated that Raman spectroscopy, at least under the conditions evaluated in the research, was not well suited for following the reactions and coordination chemistry of calcium ions, nor species such as dissolved metallic Ca and CO2 that are suspected to impact current efficiency in titanium electrolysis cells using molten CaCl2. Raman spectra of TIMET titania electrodes were successfully obtained as a function of temperature up to 900 degrees C, both in air and in-situ in CaCl2 melts. However, spectra of these electrodes could only be obtained when the material was in the unreduced state. When reduced, either with hydrogen or within an electrolysis cell, the resulting electrodes exhibited no measurable Raman bands under the conditions used in this work.

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  • Report No.: PNNL-15061
  • Grant Number: AC05-76RL01830
  • DOI: 10.2172/967935 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 967935
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc929551

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  • February 1, 2005

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Nov. 13, 2016, 7:26 p.m.

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  • Dec. 1, 2016, 1:17 p.m.

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Windisch, Charles F. & Lavender, Curt A. Raman spectroscopic studies of chemical speciation in calcium chloride melts, report, February 1, 2005; Richland, Washington. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc929551/: accessed September 23, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.