Insights into the shock initiation/detonation of homogeneous and heterogeneous HE

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It has long been known that there are fundamental differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous high explosives. The shock initiation behavior of these materials was first described in the literature by Campbell et al, in 1961. Chaiken was also involved in describing this process for liquid nitromethane. Since then, there have been a number of studies which have added considerable incite into the shock initiation/detonation behavior of these materials. We only give a few references here (Refs. 4 - 11) and these should be considered representative; e.g. they do not represent an exhaustive list of references available. Many of these studies ... continued below

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7 p.

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Gustavsen, R. L. (Richard L.); Hill, L. G. (Larry G.); Engelke, R. P. (Raymond P.); Alcon, R. R. (Robert R.); Davis, L. L. (Lloyd L.) & Sheffield, S. A. (Stephen A.) January 1, 2001.

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Description

It has long been known that there are fundamental differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous high explosives. The shock initiation behavior of these materials was first described in the literature by Campbell et al, in 1961. Chaiken was also involved in describing this process for liquid nitromethane. Since then, there have been a number of studies which have added considerable incite into the shock initiation/detonation behavior of these materials. We only give a few references here (Refs. 4 - 11) and these should be considered representative; e.g. they do not represent an exhaustive list of references available. Many of these studies were done on homogeneous explosives, most often nitromethane (NM) and include particle velocity gauge measurements, optical temperature measurements, VISAR measurements, as well as streak camera measurements of interfaces. In some cases NM was heterogenized by gelling and adding silica particles. Homogeneous materials are typically liquids or single crystals in which there are a minimal number of physical imperfections (e.g. bubbles or voids) that can cause perturbations in the input shock and the flow behind it. Homogeneous materials viewed with macroscopic probes characteristic of detonation physics experiments appear uniform. Heterogeneous explosives are generally all other types; these are usually pressed, cast, machined, or extruded into the shapes or parts desired. These materials contain imperfections of a variety of types that cause fluid-mechanical irregularities (called hot spots) when a shock or detonation wave passes over them. Such hot spots cause associated space/time fluctuations in the thermodynamic fields (e.g., the pressure or temperature fields) in the material. These thermodynamic variations affect the local chemical-heat-release rate - they produce an average heat-release rate that is a combination of chemistry and mechanics. Hot spots could be the result of voids, shock interactions, jetting, shock impedance mismatches, etc. Shock initiation of homogeneous explosives is due to a thermal explosion that occurs in the material shocked the longest. This reaction produces a reactive wave that grows behind the front and eventually overtakes the front. The reactive wave may grow into what is called a superdetonation before it overtakes the initial shock and settles down to a steady detonation. The shock initiation process in heterogeneous explosives differs a great deal because the hot spots cause early chemical reaction as soon as the shock passing over a region creates them. This causes reactive growth both in and behind the shock front. This leads to a relatively smooth growth of the initiating shock to a detonation, in contrast to the abrupt changes that occur in the homogeneous case. These differences are apparent in both the in-situ reaction wave profiles and the acceleration of the shock front.

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7 p.

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  • "Submitted to: Invited paper for New Models and Hydrocodes for Shock Wave Processes in Condensed Matter, Paris, France 16-21 September 2001"

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  • Report No.: LA-UR-01-2723
  • Grant Number: none
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 975332
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc929326

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  • January 1, 2001

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Nov. 13, 2016, 7:26 p.m.

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  • Dec. 12, 2016, 3:57 p.m.

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Gustavsen, R. L. (Richard L.); Hill, L. G. (Larry G.); Engelke, R. P. (Raymond P.); Alcon, R. R. (Robert R.); Davis, L. L. (Lloyd L.) & Sheffield, S. A. (Stephen A.). Insights into the shock initiation/detonation of homogeneous and heterogeneous HE, article, January 1, 2001; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc929326/: accessed August 21, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.