Long Baseline Neutrino Beams and Large Detectors

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It is amazing to acknowledge that in roughly 70 years from when the existence of the neutrino was postulated, we are now contemplating investigating the mysteries of this particle (or particles) requiring and utilizing detectors of 300 ktons , distances of 1,000-2,000 kilometers, beam intensities of megawatts and underground depth of 5,000 feet. This evolution has evolved slowly, from the experimental discovery of the neutrino in 1956, to the demonstration that there were two neutrinos in 1962 and three and only three by 1991. The great excitement occurred in the 2000's coming from the study of solar and atmospheric neutrinos ... continued below

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Samios,N.P. October 27, 2008.

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It is amazing to acknowledge that in roughly 70 years from when the existence of the neutrino was postulated, we are now contemplating investigating the mysteries of this particle (or particles) requiring and utilizing detectors of 300 ktons , distances of 1,000-2,000 kilometers, beam intensities of megawatts and underground depth of 5,000 feet. This evolution has evolved slowly, from the experimental discovery of the neutrino in 1956, to the demonstration that there were two neutrinos in 1962 and three and only three by 1991. The great excitement occurred in the 2000's coming from the study of solar and atmospheric neutrinos in which neutrinos were observed to oscillate and therefore have mass. Although the absolute mass of any of the neutrinos has yet to be determined (the upper limit is less than I electron volt) the difference in this square of these masses has been measured, yielding a value of (2.3 {+-} .2) 10{sup -3} ev{sup 2} for atmospheric neutrinos and (7.6 {+-} .2) 10{sup -5} ev{sup 2} for solar neutrinos. In addition their mixing angles were found to be 45{sup o} for atmospheric neutrinos and 34{sup o} for solar neutrinos. This present state of knowledge on neutrinos is pictorially displayed in Fig. 1. Of course, mixing between flavors had already been observed in the quark sector as exemplified by the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Meskawa Matrix. It was therefore natural to extend this formalism to the lepton sector involving unitary 3 x 3 matrices and one CP violating phase. This is shown in Fig. 2 for the two sectors, quark and leptons including the Jarlskog invariant (J).

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  • International Conference on Particle Physics; Bebek, Istanbul, Turkey; 20081027 through 20081031

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  • Report No.: BNL--82036-2009-CP
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 951089
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc929227

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

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  • October 27, 2008

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  • Nov. 13, 2016, 7:26 p.m.

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  • Dec. 12, 2016, 8:35 p.m.

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Samios,N.P. Long Baseline Neutrino Beams and Large Detectors, article, October 27, 2008; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc929227/: accessed December 9, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.