Industrial Applications Perspective of Nanodielectrics Page: 4 of 28
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Polymeric materials have been used by mankind for ages starting
with natural materials (e.g. tar, shellac, etc.). Nowadays synthetic
materials are produced in different forms for engineering
applications. Although these synthetic polymeric materials can be
employed without any fillers, they are often loaded with inorganic
fillers either to reduce cost or to produce a product with unique
properties that is suitable for multifunctional applications (Winey
and Vaia 2007). The multifunctional features can be attributed to
properties such as improved thermal/flame resistance (Xiong et al.
2007; Xie et al. 2002), moisture resistance, decreased permittivity
(Nelson and Fothergill 2004; Tuncer et al. 2007), space-charge
tolerance, increase mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and
increased toughness (Koo 2006).
An example of improved thermal/flame resistance is hydrated
alumina (aluminum trihydrate)-filled silicone rubber (Tuncer and
Gubanski 2000), which is utilized in high-voltage outdoor insulation
in transmission lines and bushings. The hydrated alumina used as a
fire retardant in packaging applications and in high-voltage
applications improves the arcing resistance of insulation. Another
example is pure silicone rubber (polydimethylsiloxane-PDMS),
which is brittle without any fillers, and is filled with either
micrometer- or nanometer-size silica particles to improve the
mechanical properties of the silicone (Koo 2006).
The nanocomposites concept started to appear in the late 1980s
(Winey and Vaia 2007). These early works mainly focused on
montmorillonite clays, material synthesis, and mechanical properties
of the composites (Fukushima and Inagaki 1987; Usuki et al. 1993a;
Usuki et al. 1995; Kojima et al. 1993a; Usuki et al. 1993b; Kojima et
al. 1993b). Other metal oxides and metal fillers in the nanometer-
size range in polymeric composites have also been investigated
(Ciebien et al. 1998; Shi et al. 2004). The latter materials are used
for electromagnetic shielding and flexible electrode structures
(Kruisa et al. 1998; Althues et al. 2007).
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Tuncer, Enis & Sauers, Isidor. Industrial Applications Perspective of Nanodielectrics, book, January 1, 2009; (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc929205/m1/4/: accessed April 23, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.