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observed. Cellulose-based paper is still the main insulation material
used in power transformers, and, in some sub-water cable
applications, paper has been used for decades. Outdoor electrical
insulation materials for high-voltage lines and bushings have been
almost exclusively based on ceramic and glass technology; however,
for the last several decades composite materials and polymeric
materials with lighter and better surface performance than their
earlier counterparts have been utilized.
The introduction of artificial rubbers followed by novel polymeric
materials opened a new horizon in materials science and
manufacturability after the World War II. Most of the hard-to-
manufacture or shape materials used in different industrial
applications were replaced by new plastics. In electrical
applications, these plastics have been easier to shape and process
compared to glass and ceramics. Most plastics/polymers without any
filler particle inclusions do not possess sufficient mechanical
strength; therefore, fillers have been introduced to improve the
mechanical properties of polymers. Fillers like silica, asbestos fibers,
alumina, titania, etc., have been extensively employed for property
enhancement, and some of these fillers have also been used to
improve the electrical properties of polymers.
It is still not completely understood how the dielectric breakdown in
insulation materials occurs. However, it is known that degradation in
materials, by heat or electric field, impurities, and/or defects, leads
to undesired insulation failure. It is therefore critical that new
methods of manufacturing defect-free or defect-tolerant materials be
developed. It appears that nanoparticles in a nanodielectric help to
create defect-tolerant regions. Improving properties of an existing
material or synthesizing a new material has often been based on an
Edisonian approach that requires testing many samples to build
reliable statistics for a candidate material. Recent research results
have illustrated that various nanodielectric systems have a promising
future in electric insulation science.
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Tuncer, Enis & Sauers, Isidor. Industrial Applications Perspective of Nanodielectrics, book, January 1, 2009; (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc929205/m1/3/: accessed April 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.