An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation Page: 4 of 123
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solids, co-management or ion reduction (e.g. reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, etc.)
techniques will be needed for discharge or reuse of high ionic strength waters. Data collected
from produced water experiments indicate that hybrid pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment
systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu).
Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 38.4% to 99.6% for Cd,
90.6% to 99.8% for Cu, 93.1% to 99.3% for Pb, and 40.0% to 99.8% for Zn. Reuse of these
waters will likely depend on the chloride concentration of the outflow samples, but with use of
reverse osmosis technology, chloride concentrations can be decreased sufficiently for reuse as
service water. Concentrations of arsenic, selenium, chromium, and zinc were decreased in ash
basin waters by pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems. Average removal for arsenic,
selenium, chromium, zinc, and mercury was 88, 21, 71, 68, and 94%, respectively. Pilot-scale
constructed wetland treatment systems were also successful in reducing the potential for scale
formation and biofouling in the ash basin water. Toxicity significantly decreased in the pilot-
scale constructed wetland treatment systems' effluent as compared to inflow. Pilot-scale
constructed wetland treatment systems decreased aqueous concentrations of chlorine, copper,
zinc and lead in cooling waters. Average percent removals for each element were 97% for Cu,
88% for Pb, and 30% for Zn. The relatively low percent removals for zinc and lead are a result
of minimal initial elemental concentration. Pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems
were successful in reducing potential for corrosion and biofouling in cooling waters and for
treating cooling water for internal reuse. Data from pilot-scale studies clearly indicate that
constructed wetland treatment systems can remediate FGD waters, ash basin waters, cooling
waters and produced waters for reuse or discharge.
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Rodgers, John & Castle, James. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation, report, August 31, 2008; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc927697/m1/4/: accessed February 23, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.