Photoacoustically Measured Speeds of Sound and the Equation of State of HBO2: On Understanding Detonation with Boron Fuel Page: 3 of 11
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Photoacoustically Measured Speeds of Sound and the Equation of State of HBO2:
On Understanding Detonation with Boron Fuel
Joseph M. Zaug, Sorin Bastea, Jonathan C. Crowhurst, Michael R. Armstrong, Laurence E. Fried, and
Nick E. Teslich Jr.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Physical and Life Sciences, PO BOX 808, L-350, Livermore CA 94551
Abstract. Elucidation of geodynamic, geochemical, and shock induced processes is
limited by challenges to accurately determine molecular fluid equations of state (EOS).
High pressure liquid state reactions of carbon species underlie physiochemical
mechanisms such as differentiation of planetary interiors, deep carbon sequestration,
propellant deflagration, and shock chemistry. In this proceedings paper we introduce a
versatile photoacoustic technique developed to measure accurate and precise speeds of
sound (SoS) of high pressure molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. SoS of an intermediate
boron oxide, HBO2 are measured up to 0.5 GPa along the 277 C isotherm. A polarized
exponential-6 interatomic potential form, parameterized using our SoS data, enables EOS
determinations and corresponding semi-empirical evaluations of >2000 C
thermodynamic states including energy release from bororganic formulations. Our
thermochemical model propitiously predicts boronated hydrocarbon shock Hugoniot
Earth's evolving geochemistry involves
complex reactions between silicate solutions,
mantle minerals, oxides, and other molecules with
high pressure hydrocarbon species. Physical
conditions predominate in the upper- and lower-
mantle, including those generated by explosive
volcanism, can be created by ignition of rocket
propellants, or during explosive crystallization or
detonation processes. The addition of metal
reactants to enhance the performance of these tools
increases their chemical similarities with interior
planetary processes. Metal additives were first
introduced to energetic material formulations to
increase the impact potential of shaped charges.'
Predictions of reaction products from highly
energetic CHNO materials containing metal
additives are a highly empirical and limited
primarily to large-scale calibration tests and
knowledge of sparsely available extreme condition
thermodynamic data. Aluminum powder was
observed to decrease shock pressure and reaction
velocities of HEs, an effect attributed to low heat
of formation oxide products at the Chapman-
Jouguet, (C-J) plane of explosives, i.e. the
thermodynamic state where the products behind a
steady propagating detonation front reach chemical
equilibrium. Boron was also recognized as a
candidate additive allowing for its high volumetric
heat of reaction, 137.45 kJ/cc, which is the highest
elemental AH per unit volume.3 An early
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Zaug, J M; Bastea, S; Crowhurst, J; Armstrong, M; Fried, L & Teslich, N. Photoacoustically Measured Speeds of Sound and the Equation of State of HBO2: On Understanding Detonation with Boron Fuel, article, March 9, 2010; Livermore, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc926304/m1/3/: accessed January 16, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.