Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks Page: 4 of 26
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It is known that high-emitting vehicles contribute disproportionately to gaseous pollutant
emissions from the on-road LD vehicle fleet. Emission factor data from Bishop and
Stedman (11) for NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons show that the skewness of emissions
distributions (i.e., the relative importance of high-emitters as a source of vehicle-related
pollution) has been increasing at the same time that fleet-average emissions have declined
significantly. Gas-phase emissions from HD diesel vehicles have been found to be
skewed to a lesser extent than light-duty vehicles (12). Less is known about PM
emissions from motor vehicles, due in part to difficulties in making fast time-response
measurements. Various studies have reported distributions of PM emissions for LD
vehicles (13-15). Other studies have focused on PM emissions from large samples of
high-emitting LD vehicles (16-18). Jiang et al. (19) reported distributions of BC and
PM2.5 emissions for a mixed LD/HD fleet in Mexico City. Two other studies measured
particle number emission rates, one from high-emitting HD diesel buses (20), and the
other from trucks and buses in Mexico (21). In summary, to date there have been
relatively few studies that report fine particle emission distributions from large samples
of HD vehicles.
The goal of the present study was to measure BC and PN emission factors for a large
sample of individual HD trucks as they drove through a San Francisco Bay area highway
tunnel. The individual and joint distributions of BC and PN emission factors from these
trucks are presented. We also consider how vehicle sample size affects uncertainty in
estimates of the population mean BC emission factor. In a companion paper (5), we
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Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W. & Harley, Robert A. Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks, article, February 2, 2009; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc926033/m1/4/: accessed November 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.