Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks

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Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO{sub 2}B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for {approx} 40% of total ... continued below

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Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W. & Harley, Robert A. February 2, 2009.

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Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO{sub 2}B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for {approx} 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg {sup -1} and maximum values of {approx} 10 g kg{sup -1}. Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10{sup 15} and 4 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1}. There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1{sigma}) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from {+-} 43% for n = 10 to {+-} 8% for n = 300, illustrating the importance of sufficiently large vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. Studies with low sample sizes are also more easily biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in future years, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet are expected to become more of a challenge.

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  • Journal Name: Environmental Science and Technology; Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 5

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  • Report No.: LBNL-2082E
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231
  • DOI: 10.1021/es8021039 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 962942
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc926033

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  • February 2, 2009

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  • Nov. 13, 2016, 7:26 p.m.

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  • Jan. 4, 2017, 5:53 p.m.

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Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W. & Harley, Robert A. Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks, article, February 2, 2009; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc926033/: accessed December 14, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.