Experimental Investigation of Material Flows Within FSWs Using 3D Tomography Page: 3 of 8
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one can produce life-like terrain for digital imagery, similar to
those seen in the movie industry with the production of life-
like terrain for digital imagery.
Properly formulated, fractal statistics lend themselves to
multi-dimensional data space analysis and quantification
because they measure fundamental n-dimensional topological
parameters. Thus, the new unified fractal statistics will be
used to quantify the distribution of the copper tracer material
within the prototypical CT-reconstructed friction stir welded
examples shown within this paper. The results presented also
show how multi-pass FSW (also known as friction stir
processing (FSP)) can, as might be expected, further refine the
average particle size of tracer materials with each processing
pass (see Figure 4).
The prototypical Friction Stir weldments to be examined via
the CT process will be briefly described, followed by a brief
introduction to the x-ray CT process, with a sample
reconstruction. Then fractal statistics will be visually
correlated with the reconstructed FSW welds under
All FSWs were performed on 6061-T6511 aluminum base
material. Coupon dimensions were nominally 4 in. x 8 in x
0.508 in., see the sandwich configuration in Figure 1. The
sandwich material was clamped with 6 hold-downs, taken in
pairs, nominally equal distance along the coupon, compressed
against a steel tie down fixture approximately 2 in. thick,
which can be water cooled (for these welds, the water cooling
was turned off), as seen in Figure 2. Similar experiments have
also been performed with the coupon affixed to a copper,
water-cooled plate, nominally 24 in. x 5 in. Numerous sample
plates have been created; although, due to the shortness of the
project length and funding only one sample plate section has
undergone tomographic reconstruction.
6061 -T6511 1/8" Plate
.08" Copper Sheet Stock
6061-T6511 3/8" Plate
Figure 2: Experimental fixture. The fixture allows for the
measurement of input and output cooling fluid temperatures
which can be used to determine heat extraction amounts (not
used within this set of experiments).
The basic tool design is shown in Figure 3. The FSW tool was
fashioned out of T15 tool steel. Little to no appreciable tool
wear has been shown to occur, verified via visual inspection
and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the
welded region, see Figure 4.
Figure 3: All tools were based on this scrolled pin and
shoulder design. The witness ruler within the image on the
right is in units of millimeters.
Fiure 1: The exper/m enta! test sample consisted of a
sandwich of 1/8" 6061-T6SII aluminum pate, 0.008 in.
copper shim stock (SHOPIID Shim INfA Ci Shop-Aid Inc.
Jfoburn, M 01801), and a 3/8" 6061-T6SI A/uminump/ate.
The FS/F too/ was norma/ to the top surface ofthe sandwich
(I e. the too/ was oriented vertica/ly downward in the image
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Tolle, Charles R.; White, Timothy A.; Miller, Karen S.; Clark, Denis E. & Smartt, Herschel B. Experimental Investigation of Material Flows Within FSWs Using 3D Tomography, article, June 1, 2008; [Idaho]. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc925891/m1/3/: accessed January 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.