Linear pi-Acceptor-Templated Dynamic Clipping to Macrobicycles and[2]Rotaxanes

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Functional rotaxanes are one of the representative nanoscale molecular machines that have found applications in many areas, including molecular electronics, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), photo controllable smart surfaces, and nanovalves. With the advent of molecular recognition and self-assembly, such molecular compounds can now be obtained efficiently through template-directed synthesis. One of the common strategies of making [2]rotaxanes involves the clipping of a macrocycle around a preformed dumbbell-shaped template in a [1+1] or [2+2] manner. While early examples were based on irreversible kinetic pathway through covalent bond formation, recent advances on reversible dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) has attracted great attention to this ... continued below

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Klivansky, Liana M.; Koshkakaryan, Gayane; Cao, Dennis & Liu, Yi April 30, 2009.

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Functional rotaxanes are one of the representative nanoscale molecular machines that have found applications in many areas, including molecular electronics, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), photo controllable smart surfaces, and nanovalves. With the advent of molecular recognition and self-assembly, such molecular compounds can now be obtained efficiently through template-directed synthesis. One of the common strategies of making [2]rotaxanes involves the clipping of a macrocycle around a preformed dumbbell-shaped template in a [1+1] or [2+2] manner. While early examples were based on irreversible kinetic pathway through covalent bond formation, recent advances on reversible dynamic covalent chemistry (DCC) has attracted great attention to this field. By virtue of thermodynamically controlled equilibria, DCC has provided highly efficient and versatile synthetic routes in the selection of specific products from a complex system. Among the several reversible reactions in the category of DCC reactions, the imine formation has proven to be very versatile in macrocyclization to give complex interlocked molecular compounds. Cryptands are three dimensional bicyclic hosts with preorganized cavities capable of inclusion of ions and small molecules. Replacing the nitrogen bridgeheads in common cryptands with aromatic ring systems gives cyclophane-based macrobicycles. The introduction of aromatic ring systems into a preorganized cage-like geometry facilitates ion-{pi} interactions and {pi}-{pi} interactions, resulting in novel metal sandwiches, fluoride receptors, and host-guest complexes. In particular, the seminal work by Gibson, Huang and coworkers on cryptand complexation with paraquat and diquat guests have resulted in the efficient synthesis of mechanically interlocked rotaxanes. The synthesis of cyclophane-based macrobicycles, however, was mostly realized through multiple reaction steps and in high-dilution conditions, which often suffered from low yield and tedious workup. Thus, a one-step, five-component [2+3] clipping reaction that can give the desired macrobicycle is highly desirable. We are motivated by a {pi}-guest templating protocol, because not only {pi}-{pi} interactions can contribute to the formation of macrobicycles, but also the resulting host-guest system holds great promise as a forerunner in the construction of interlocked molecules. (Scheme 1c) Very simple precursors, namely 1,3,5-benzenetrialdehyde (1) and 2,2{prime}-(ethylenedioxy)diethylamine (2) were chosen as the components for desired macrobicycle. (Scheme 2) The formation of six imine bonds would connect the five components to give a macrobicycle while extending the conjugation in the C{sub 3}-symmetric aromatic 'ceiling' and 'floor', which is suitable for enhancing the {pi}-{pi} interactions with a complementary aromatic template. Meanwhile, the ethylene glycol 'pillars' can provide sufficient flexibility, proper spacing, and polar binding sites to assist guest encapsulation. Initial screening of ?-templates engaged several C{sub 3} symmetric aromatic compounds in order to match the symmetry of the desired macrobicycle, which only resulted in nonspecific mixtures. It was found instead that linear bipyridinium (BPY) containing guests effectively templated the [2+3] clipping reaction. Based on this protocol, a [2]rotaxane was successfully assembled as the single product from the six-component reaction.

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  • Journal Name: Angewandte Chemie International Edition; Journal Volume: 48

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  • Report No.: LBNL-2198E
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 965776
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc925616

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  • April 30, 2009

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  • Nov. 13, 2016, 7:26 p.m.

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  • Oct. 2, 2017, 5:06 p.m.

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Klivansky, Liana M.; Koshkakaryan, Gayane; Cao, Dennis & Liu, Yi. Linear pi-Acceptor-Templated Dynamic Clipping to Macrobicycles and[2]Rotaxanes, article, April 30, 2009; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc925616/: accessed June 21, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.