Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning Page: 58
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Spector, J. M., Ifenthaler, D., Samspon, D., Yang, L., Mukama, E., Warusavitarana, A., Lokuge Dona, K., Eichhorn, K., Fluck,
A., Huang, R., Bridges, S., Lu, J., Ren, Y., Gui, X., Deneen, C. C., San Diego, J., & Gibson, D. C. (2016). Technology Enhanced
Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 19 (3), 58-7 1.
Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning
J. Michael Spectorl*, Dirk Ifenthaler2, Demetrios Sampson3, Lan (Joy) Yang4, Evode
Mukama5, Amali Warusavitarana6, Kulari Lokuge Dona7, Koos Eichhorn8, Andrew Fluck9,
Ronghuai Huang'0, Susan Bridges", Jiingyan Lu", Youqun Ren12, Xiaoqing Gui12,
Christopher C. Deneen13, Jonathan San Diego'4 and David C. Gibson3
'University of North Texas, USA // 2University of Mannheim, Germany and Deakin University, Australia // 3Curtin
University, Australia // 4Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong // 'University of Rwanda, Butare, Rwanda //
6Institute of Advanced Technological Education, Sri Lanka // 7Monash College, Australia /7 8AB-ZHW, The Hague,
Netherlands /7 9University of Tasmania, Australia // '0Beijing Normal University, China /7 "University of Hong
Kong, Hong Kong // 12East China Normal University, China // '3National Institute of Education, Singapore /7
"King's College London, UK // firstname.lastname@example.org /7 email@example.com // firstname.lastname@example.org //
email@example.com // firstname.lastname@example.org // email@example.com // Kulari.Lokuge@monashcollege.edu.au /7
firstname.lastname@example.org // Andrew.Fluck@utas.edu.au // email@example.com // firstname.lastname@example.org // email@example.com /7
firstname.lastname@example.org // email@example.com // Christopher.firstname.lastname@example.org //j.p.san diegogkcl.ac.uk /7
This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummiT 2015 in Bangkok,
Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of
potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the
21st century. The group decided to focus primarily on formative assessment rather than summative assessment
and high stakes testing. Formative assessments and feedback provide an important opportunity to support and
enhance student learning. Recognizing shifts in education towards blended and online learning with problem-
based and inquiry-based approaches led to considerations of technologies that could effectively support
formative assessment and informative feedback to 21st century learners. The paper concludes with a summary of
conclusions and recommendations of the working group to be taken up in subsequent efforts.
Formative assessment, Inquiry-based learning, Problem-based learning, Summative assessment, Technologies for
The importance of formative assessment in student learning is discussed at various levels in the context of teaching
and learning environments. With the known purpose of assessment in education being to support learning, some
educational reforms clearly recognized the significance of formative assessments and feedback (Black & William,
2006; CDC & HKEAA, 2007). Brown, Hui, Yu, and Kennedy (2011) also have highlighted the importance of teacher
cooperation and staff development to initiate the changes to formative assessment and feedback. In Hattie's (2009;
2012) research on visible learning, formative assessment was rated as one of the most effective methods to encourage
student achievement. Wiliam, Lee, Harrison and Black (2004) also found that integration of formative assessment
into teaching resulted in enhanced student performance. Bulunuz et al. (2016) indicated that formative assessment
creates opportunities to promote the development of student's skills of explaining, interpreting and reasoning.
Narciss (2008) provided a comprehensive overview of the benefits of timely and informative feedback (i.e.,
formative assessment). The shift in pedagogy towards dynamic problem-based and inquiry-based learning is gaining
increasing attention as a means to support the development of 21st century skills (Lu, Bridges, & Hmelo-Silver, 2014;
P21, n.d.), and this creates a need for changes in formative assessments. The opportunities to use technology to
support formative assessment for learning have also grown with the development of new learning technologies
(Johnson et al., 2016; Woolf, 2010). For example, recent review identified how various technological affordances are
being integrated into the next generation of problem-based designs, to enhance both online and face-to-face
interactions and collaborative knowledge building (Jin & Bridges, 2014; Narciss, 2008; Roskos & Neuman, 2012).
This paper discusses some of the current issues with formative assessment and considers how the tools and
technologies that are available can develop new formative assessment practices to support 21st century learning (P21,
n.d.). The paper concludes with trends, directions and general conclusions emphasizing the significance of formative
ISSN 1436-4522 (online) and 1176-3647 (print). This article of the Journal of Educational Technology & Society is available under Creative Commons CC-BY-ND-NC 58
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Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan (Joy); Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali et al. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning, article, July 2016; Alberta, Canada. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc919604/m1/1/: accessed September 19, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Information.