Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control Page: 4 of 421
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On March 15, 2005, EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) (subsequently
vacated in February 2008), which required phased-in reductions of mercury emissions from
electric power generators. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL and industry
partners, conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON IITM process and of high-temperature
reagents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon,
for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations in
accordance with the existing CAMR regulations.
This is the final site report for TOXECON IITM tests conducted at Entergy's
Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES), one of two sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL
program. The other site in the program is MidAmerican's Louisa Station, where high-
temperature reagent testing was conducted. This project was funded through the DOE/NETL
Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase II project with the goal to develop
mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less
than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. Results from testing at
Independence indicate that the DOE goal was successfully achieved. Further improvements
in the process are recommended, however.
Independence typically burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 880-MW Unit 2.
Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either
within or in front of one of the four ESP boxes (SCA = 542 ft2/kacfm). Initial mercury
control evaluations indicated that, although significant mercury control could be achieved by
using the TOXECON IITM design, the sorbent concentration required was higher than
expected, possibly due to poor sorbent distribution. Subsequently, the original injection grid
design was modeled and the results revealed that the sorbent distribution pattern was
determined by the grid design, fluctuations in flue gas flow rates, and the structure of the ESP
box. To improve sorbent distribution, the injection grid and delivery system was redesigned
and its effectiveness evaluated. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the
TOXECON IITM process on ESP operation and particulate emissions.
Independence Topical Report iii
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Sjostrom, Sharon. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control, report, June 30, 2007; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc902937/m1/4/: accessed September 24, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.