POLARIZED PROTON ACCELERATION IN AGS AND RHIC. Page: 3 of 12
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Polarized Proton Acceleration
in AGS and RHIC '
Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11793-5000, USA
Abstract. As the first hadron accelerator and collider consisting of two independent superconduct-
ing rings RHIC has operated with a wide range of beam energies and particle species including
polarized proton beams. The acceleration of polarized beams in both the injector and the collider
rings is complicated by numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Partial and full Siberian snakes
have made it possible to overcome the depolarization and beam polarizations of up to 65% have
been reached at 100 GeV in RHIC.
Keywords: Polarized beams
PACS: 29.27.Hj, 29.20.dk
THE RHIC FACILITY
With its two independent rings RHIC is a highly flexible collider of hadron beams
ranging from colliding intense beams of polarized protons to colliding fully stripped
gold ions. The collision of 100 GeV/nucleon gold ions probes the conditions of the
early universe by producing extreme conditions where quarks and gluons are predicted
to form a new state of matter. Several runs of high luminosity gold-gold collisions as
well as comparison runs using proton, deuteron and copper beams have demonstrated
that indeed a new state of matter with extreme density is formed in the RHIC gold-gold
The RHIC polarized proton collider has opened up the completely unique physics
opportunities of studying spin effects in hadronic reactions at high-luminosity high-
energy proton-proton collisions. It allows the study of the spin structure of the proton, in
particular the degree of polarization of the gluons and anti-quarks, and also verification
of the many well-documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and
parity violation in W and Z production. The RHIC center-of-mass energy range of 200 to
500 GeV is ideal in the sense that it is high enough for perturbative QCD to be applicable
and low enough so that the typical momentum fraction of the valence quarks is about
0.1 or larger. This guarantees significant levels of parton polarization.
During its first seven years of operation RHIC has already exceeded the design para-
meters for gold-gold collisions, has successfully operated in an asymmetric mode of col-
liding deuteron on gold with both beams at the same energy per nucleon but, of course,
different rigidities, and very successfully completed an additional comparison run of
1 Work performed under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy, and with support of
RIKEN (Japan) and Renaissance Technologies Corp. (USA)
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ROSER,T. POLARIZED PROTON ACCELERATION IN AGS AND RHIC., article, September 10, 2007; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc902443/m1/3/: accessed May 24, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.