Change in cell shape is required for matrix metalloproteinase-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells Page: 3 of 26
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenotypic alteration in which
epithelial cells detach from their neighbors and the underlying basement membrane and
become more motile and migratory [Radisky, 2005; Thiery, 2002]. EMT is critical for
metazoan embryonic development: during gastrulation, the primitive embryonic epithelium
forms the primary mesenchyme, and in vertebrates, multipotent migratory neural crest cells
delaminate from the neural ectoderm and form diverse tissue derivatives [Shook and Keller,
There is an increasing awareness that EMT-related processes are activated under
pathological conditions as well, including fibrosis, tumor progression, and metastatic
invasion [Kalluri and Neilson, 2003; Petersen et al., 2003; Radisky et al., 2007; Thiery,
2003], and this recognition has triggered intensive investigations into the mechanisms
involved in the activation of EMT. In cultured cells, EMT can be induced by cytokines,
growth factors, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) [Stallings-Mann and Radisky,
2007; Thiery and Sleeman, 2006]. We have found that MMP3 (previously stromelysin-1)
induces EMT in mouse mammary epithelial cells [Lochter et al., 1997a; Lochter et al.,
1997b; Radisky et al., 2005; Sternlicht et al., 1999], through a signaling mechanism that
involves cleavage of E-cadherin and induction of Raclb, a highly activated splice isoform
of the Racl GTPase. Raclb increases the levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS),
which in turn activate the EMT transcriptional program, including downregulation of
epithelial cytokeratins and increased expression of mesenchymal markers including Snail,
vimentin, and a-smooth muscle actin [Radisky et al., 2005]. Cells treated with MMP3 also
significantly alter their cytoskeletal structure and morphology by losing cortical actin,
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Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bissell, Mina J. & Radisky, Derek C. Change in cell shape is required for matrix metalloproteinase-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells, article, June 26, 2008; Berkeley, California. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc901999/m1/3/: accessed April 25, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.