Investigation of early growth of calcium hydroxide crystals in cement solution by soft x-ray transmission microscopy

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Research on cement hydration was performed at the full-field soft transmission X-ray microscope XM-1 located at beamline 6.1.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley CA which is operated by the Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. A series of works [1-3] has been conducted using this microscope for the in situ observation and qualitative analysis of through-solution hydration products and products of topochemical reactions, which form in cementitious aqueous solutions. This paper studies the precipitation of the calcium hydroxide (CH) crystals from the cement solution. The analysis of successive images of the hydration process ... continued below

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Harutyunyan, V. S.; Kirchheim, A. P.; Monteiro, P. J. M.; Aivazyan, A. P. & Fischer, P. February 2, 2009.

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Research on cement hydration was performed at the full-field soft transmission X-ray microscope XM-1 located at beamline 6.1.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley CA which is operated by the Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. A series of works [1-3] has been conducted using this microscope for the in situ observation and qualitative analysis of through-solution hydration products and products of topochemical reactions, which form in cementitious aqueous solutions. This paper studies the precipitation of the calcium hydroxide (CH) crystals from the cement solution. The analysis of successive images of the hydration process provides critical quantitative information about the growth rate of calcium hydroxide (CH) crystals, the supersaturation ratio, and the kinetic and diffusion coefficients of the growth process. ASTM Type II portland cement and 6% C{sub 4}A{sub 3}{bar S} admixture were mixed in aqueous solution and saturated with respect to CH and gypsum. The C{sub 4}A{sub 3}{bar S} admixture was included in the experimental program because of the general research program on expansive cements, and adding C{sub 4}A{sub 3}{bar S} to portland cement is an efficient method of generating ettringite and significant early-age expansion. The solution/solid materials ratio was 10 cm{sup 3}/g, which is higher than the one existing in regular concrete and mortars; to compensate for this dilution, the solution was originally saturated with CH and gypsum. To allow sufficient transmission of the soft X-rays, a small droplet was taken from the supernatant solution and assembled in the sample holder, and then squeezed between two silicon nitride windows for the analysis. The X-ray optical setup of the microscope XM-1 is described elsewhere [2]. In this experiment, a wavelength of 2.4 nm (516.6 eV) was used. The radiation transmitting the sample was detected using an X-ray CCD camera, with a resolution of 35 nm provided by Fresnel zone plate X-ray optics and magnification factor of about 2000. The recorded images have a circular field of view of approximately 10 {micro}m in diameter. The illumination time per image was in the range of 1 to 14 seconds depending largely on the absorption of the sample. The experimental work was conducted at room temperature T = 298 K.

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  • Journal Name: Journal of Materials Science

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  • Report No.: LBNL-1475E
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 948133
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc901436

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  • February 2, 2009

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  • Sept. 27, 2016, 1:39 a.m.

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  • Oct. 2, 2017, 5:05 p.m.

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Harutyunyan, V. S.; Kirchheim, A. P.; Monteiro, P. J. M.; Aivazyan, A. P. & Fischer, P. Investigation of early growth of calcium hydroxide crystals in cement solution by soft x-ray transmission microscopy, article, February 2, 2009; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc901436/: accessed October 23, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.