TOUGH Short Course for Scientists and Engineers

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The TOUGH family of codes is a suite of computer programs for the simulation of multiphase fluid and heat flows in porous and fractured media with applications to geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal in geologic formations, geologic carbon sequestration, gas hydrate research, vadose zone hydrology, environmental remediation, oil and gas reservoir engineering, and other mass transport and energy transfer problems in complex geologic settings. TOUGH has been developed in the Earth Sciences Division of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Many modifications and enhancements have been made to TOUGH (at LBNL and elsewhere) from the time it was first ... continued below

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Kowalsky, Michael B. & Finsterle, Stefan August 1, 2006.

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Description

The TOUGH family of codes is a suite of computer programs for the simulation of multiphase fluid and heat flows in porous and fractured media with applications to geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal in geologic formations, geologic carbon sequestration, gas hydrate research, vadose zone hydrology, environmental remediation, oil and gas reservoir engineering, and other mass transport and energy transfer problems in complex geologic settings. TOUGH has been developed in the Earth Sciences Division of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Many modifications and enhancements have been made to TOUGH (at LBNL and elsewhere) from the time it was first released in 1987. TOUGH and its various descendants (such as iTOUGH2, T2VOC, TMVOC, EWASG, TOUGHREACT, TOUGH+ and many more) are currently in use in approximately 300 research laboratories, private companies, and universities in 33 countries. The LBNL group, headed by Karsten Pruess, serves as custodian of the code. The TOUGH simulators were developed for problems involving strongly heat-driven flow. To describe these phenomena a multi-phase approach to fluid and heat flow is used, which fully accounts for the movement of gaseous and liquid phases, their transport of latent and sensible heat, and phase transitions between liquid and vapor. TOUGH takes account of fluid flow in both liquid and gaseous phases--and, in certain modules, a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)--occurring under pressure, viscous, and gravity forces according to Darcy's law. Interference between the phases is represented by means of relative permeability functions. The code includes Klinkenberg effects and binary diffusion in the gas phase, and capillary and phase adsorption effects for the liquid phase. Heat transport occurs by means of conduction (with thermal conductivity dependent on water saturation), convection, and binary diffusion, which includes both sensible and latent heat. The goal of this training course is to teach participants with limited numerical modeling experience the fundamental concepts of modeling with the TOUGH family of codes. The material to be covered includes the following: Introduction to the TOUGH family of codes and applications; Underlying physics, mathematical models, and numerical approaches; Program structure and code installation; and Explanation of input and output files. The course will revolve around sample problems that are meant to familiarize users with TOUGH modeling concepts, such as grid generation, specification of material properties, initial and boundary conditions, and program control The most common equation of state (EOS) modules will be considered for a variety of applications and levels of complexity (ranging from isothermal problems with a single component and phase, to non-isothermal problems with multiple components and phases) Examples of advanced applications from the TOUGH family of codes, will be presented.

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  • Report No.: LBNL--60134
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231
  • DOI: 10.2172/923185 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 923185
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc900609

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  • August 1, 2006

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Sept. 27, 2016, 1:39 a.m.

Description Last Updated

  • March 23, 2018, 4:17 p.m.

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Kowalsky, Michael B. & Finsterle, Stefan. TOUGH Short Course for Scientists and Engineers, report, August 1, 2006; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc900609/: accessed August 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.