Geomechanics of penetration : experimental and computational approaches : final report for LDRD project 38718.

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The purpose of the present work is to increase our understanding of which properties of geomaterials most influence the penetration process with a goal of improving our predictive ability. Two primary approaches were followed: development of a realistic, constitutive model for geomaterials and designing an experimental approach to study penetration from the target's point of view. A realistic constitutive model, with parameters based on measurable properties, can be used for sensitivity analysis to determine the properties that are most important in influencing the penetration process. An immense literature exists that is devoted to the problem of predicting penetration into geomaterials ... continued below

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118 p.

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Hardy, Robert Douglas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Gettemy, Glen L.; Fossum, Arlo Frederick; Rivas, Raul R.; Bronowski, David R. et al. October 1, 2004.

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Description

The purpose of the present work is to increase our understanding of which properties of geomaterials most influence the penetration process with a goal of improving our predictive ability. Two primary approaches were followed: development of a realistic, constitutive model for geomaterials and designing an experimental approach to study penetration from the target's point of view. A realistic constitutive model, with parameters based on measurable properties, can be used for sensitivity analysis to determine the properties that are most important in influencing the penetration process. An immense literature exists that is devoted to the problem of predicting penetration into geomaterials or similar man-made materials such as concrete. Various formulations have been developed that use an analytic or more commonly, numerical, solution for the spherical or cylindrical cavity expansion as a sort of Green's function to establish the forces acting on a penetrator. This approach has had considerable success in modeling the behavior of penetrators, both as to path and depth of penetration. However the approach is not well adapted to the problem of understanding what is happening to the material being penetrated. Without a picture of the stress and strain state imposed on the highly deformed target material, it is not easy to determine what properties of the target are important in influencing the penetration process. We developed an experimental arrangement that allows greater control of the deformation than is possible in actual penetrator tests, yet approximates the deformation processes imposed by a penetrator. Using explosive line charges placed in a central borehole, we loaded cylindrical specimens in a manner equivalent to an increment of penetration, allowing the measurement of the associated strains and accelerations and the retrieval of specimens from the more-or-less intact cylinder. Results show clearly that the deformation zone is highly concentrated near the borehole, with almost no damage occurring beyond 1/2 a borehole diameter. This implies penetration is not strongly influenced by anything but the material within a diameter or so of the penetration. For penetrator tests, target size should not matter strongly once target diameters exceed some small multiple of the penetrator diameter. Penetration into jointed rock should not be much affected unless a discontinuity is within a similar range. Accelerations measured at several points along a radius from the borehole are consistent with highly-concentrated damage and energy absorption; At the borehole wall, accelerations were an order of magnitude higher than at 1/2 a diameter, but at the outer surface, 8 diameters away, accelerations were as expected for propagation through an elastic medium. Accelerations measured at the outer surface of the cylinders increased significantly with cure time for the concrete. As strength increased, less damage was observed near the explosively-driven borehole wall consistent with the lower energy absorption expected and observed for stronger concrete. As it is the energy absorbing properties of a target that ultimately stop a penetrator, we believe this may point the way to a more readily determined equivalent of the S number.

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118 p.

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  • Report No.: SAND2004-5211
  • Grant Number: AC04-94AL85000
  • DOI: 10.2172/920840 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 920840
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc899150

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  • October 1, 2004

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Sept. 27, 2016, 1:39 a.m.

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  • Nov. 28, 2016, 6:41 p.m.

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Hardy, Robert Douglas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Gettemy, Glen L.; Fossum, Arlo Frederick; Rivas, Raul R.; Bronowski, David R. et al. Geomechanics of penetration : experimental and computational approaches : final report for LDRD project 38718., report, October 1, 2004; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc899150/: accessed November 16, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.