INNOVATIVE IN-SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS FOR SIMULTANEOUS CONTROL OF CONTAMINATION AND EROSION

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New technologies are needed that neutralize contaminant toxicity and control physical transport mechanisms that mobilize sediment contaminants. The last 12 months of this comprehensive project investigated the use of combinations of sequestering agents to develop in situ active sediment caps that stabilize mixtures of contaminants and act as a barrier to mechanical disturbance under a broad range of environmental conditions. Efforts focused on the selection of effective sequestering agents for use in active caps, the composition of active caps, and the effects of active cap components on contaminant bioavailability and retention. Results from this project showed that phosphate amendments, some ... continued below

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Knox, A; Michael Paller, M; Danny D. Reible, D & Ioana G. Petrisor, I November 28, 2007.

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New technologies are needed that neutralize contaminant toxicity and control physical transport mechanisms that mobilize sediment contaminants. The last 12 months of this comprehensive project investigated the use of combinations of sequestering agents to develop in situ active sediment caps that stabilize mixtures of contaminants and act as a barrier to mechanical disturbance under a broad range of environmental conditions. Efforts focused on the selection of effective sequestering agents for use in active caps, the composition of active caps, and the effects of active cap components on contaminant bioavailability and retention. Results from this project showed that phosphate amendments, some organoclays, and the biopolymer, chitosan, were very effective at removing metals from both fresh and salt water. These amendments also exhibited high retention (80% or more) of most metals indicating reduced potential for remobilization to the water column. Experiments on metal speciation and retention in contaminated sediment showed that apatite and organoclay can immobilize a broad range of metals under both reduced and oxidized conditions. These studies were followed by sequential extractions to evaluate the bioavailability and retention of metals in treated sediments. Metal fractions recovered in early extraction steps are more likely to be bioavailable and were termed the Potentially Mobile Fraction (PMF). Less bioavailable fractions collected in later extraction steps were termed the Recalcitrant Factor (RF). Apatite and organoclay reduced the PMF and increased the RF for several elements, especially Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Cd. Empirically determined partitioning coefficients and modeling studies were used to assess the retention of organic contaminants on selected sequestering agents. Organoclays exhibited exceptionally high sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as indicated by a comparison of K{sub d} values among 12 amendments. These results suggested that organoclays have high potential for controlling organic contaminants. Measured partitioning coefficients were used to model the time required for a contaminant to penetrate sediment caps composed of organoclay. The results showed that a thin layer of highly sorptive organoclay can lead to very long migration times, perhaps longer than the expected lifetime of the contaminant in the sediment environment. A one-dimensional numerical model was used to examine the diffusion of metals through several cap material based on measured and assumed material and transport properties. These studies showed that active caps composed of apatite or organoclay have the potential to delay contaminant breakthrough due to diffusion by hundreds of years or more compared with passive caps composed of sand. Advectively dominated column experiments are currently underway to define effective sorption related retardation factors in promising amendments for various hydrophobic organic compounds. Upon completion of these experiments, advection transient models will be used to estimate the time required for the breakthrough of various contaminants in caps composed of different experimental materials. Biopolymer products for inclusion in active caps were evaluated on the basis of resistance to biodegradation, sorption capacity for organic and inorganic contaminants, and potential for erosion control. More than 20 biopolymer products were evaluated resulting in the selection of chitosan/guar gum cross-linked with borax and xanthan/chitosan cross-linked with calcium chloride for inclusion in active caps to produce a barrier that resists mechanical disturbance. A process was developed for coating sand with cross-linked biopolymers to provide a means for delivery to the sediment surface. Properties of biopolymer coated sand such as carbon fraction (indicating biopolymer coverage), porosity, bulk density, and biodegradability have been evaluated, and experiments are currently underway to assess the resistance of biopolymer coated sand to erosion. Although the ability of active cap materials to remediate contaminants has been emphasized in this study, it is also important to ensure that these materials do not have deleterious effects on the environment. Therefore, promising amendments were evaluated for toxicity using 10 day sediment toxicity tests, the standardized Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and measurement of metal concentrations in aqueous extracts from the amendments. Metal concentrations were below TCLP limits, EPA ambient water quality criteria, and other ecological screening values These results showed that apatite, organoclay, and biopolymer coated sand do not release metals. The sediment toxicity tests indicated that apatite and biopolymer coated sand are unlikely to adversely affect benthic organisms, even when used in high concentrations.

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  • Report No.: WSRC-RP-2007-00666
  • Grant Number: DE-AC09-96SR18500
  • DOI: 10.2172/921682 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 921682
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc898793

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  • November 28, 2007

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  • Sept. 27, 2016, 1:39 a.m.

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  • Dec. 12, 2016, 3:57 p.m.

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Knox, A; Michael Paller, M; Danny D. Reible, D & Ioana G. Petrisor, I. INNOVATIVE IN-SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS FOR SIMULTANEOUS CONTROL OF CONTAMINATION AND EROSION, report, November 28, 2007; [Aiken, South Carolina]. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc898793/: accessed August 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.