Evaluation of ingredients for the development of new insensitive munitions.

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Several ingredients being considered by the U.S. Army for the development of new insensitive munitions have been examined. One set of ingredients consists of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX). In this set, the decomposition of the mixture was examined to determine whether adding DNPH to RDX would generate a sufficient quantity of gas to rupture the case of a munition prior to the onset of the rapid reaction of RDX, thus mitigating the violence of reaction. The second set of ingredients consists of three different reduced sensitivity RDX (RS-RDX) powders manufactured by SNPE and Dyno-Nobel. In this set, the objective ... continued below

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67 p.

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Maharrey, Sean P.; Johnston, Lois A.; Behrens, Richard, Jr. & Wiese-Smith, Deneille December 1, 2004.

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Description

Several ingredients being considered by the U.S. Army for the development of new insensitive munitions have been examined. One set of ingredients consists of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX). In this set, the decomposition of the mixture was examined to determine whether adding DNPH to RDX would generate a sufficient quantity of gas to rupture the case of a munition prior to the onset of the rapid reaction of RDX, thus mitigating the violence of reaction. The second set of ingredients consists of three different reduced sensitivity RDX (RS-RDX) powders manufactured by SNPE and Dyno-Nobel. In this set, the objective was to determine properties of RS-RDX powders that may distinguish them from normal RDX powder and may account for their reduced shock sensitivity. The decomposition reactions and sublimation properties of these materials were examined using two unique instruments: the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) instrument and the Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry instrument. These instruments provide the capability to examine the details of decomposition reactions in energetic materials. DNPH does not appear to be a good candidate to mitigate the violence of the RDX reaction in a munition. DNPH decomposes between 170 C and 180 C. When mixed with RDX it decomposes between 155 C and 170 C. It decomposes to form 1,3-dintrobenzene (DNB), ammonia, water and nitrogen. Of these compounds only nitrogen and ammonia are capable of generating high pressures within a munition. When DNPH is mixed with RDX, the DNB formed in the decomposition of DNPH interacts with RDX on the surface of the RDX powder leading to a higher rate of formation of CH2O and N2O. The CH2O is consumed by reaction with DNPH to form 2-methylene-1-(2,4-dintrophenyl)hydrazine. As a result, DNPH does not generate a large quantity of gas that will lead to rupture of a munition case. Another compound to consider as an additive is 2-oxo-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (K-6), which generates more gas in the required temperature range. Examination of several different RS-RDX materials has shown that their sublimation rates and decomposition behavior differ from Holston grade RDX. The results suggest that insensitive RDX materials from both SNPE and Dyno-Nobel may have a shell-like structure of RDX on the surface of the particles that is less stable and more reactive than the material in the core of the particles. The origin of this shell-like RDX structure is uncertain, but may be due to some aspect of the manufacturing process. It is possible that this less stable RDX on the surface of the particles may be more fluid than the interior of the particles, allowing more slip between the surface of the particles under impact or shock. This may play a role in the reduced shock sensitivity of the insensitive RDX materials. The results of over 50 experiments with DNPH, mixtures of DNPH and RDX and insensitive RDX are presented. The results characterize the decomposition behavior of each of these materials.

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67 p.

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  • Report No.: SAND2004-5309
  • Grant Number: AC04-94AL85000
  • DOI: 10.2172/920116 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 920116
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc897742

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  • December 1, 2004

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Sept. 27, 2016, 1:39 a.m.

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  • Dec. 5, 2016, 3:18 p.m.

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Maharrey, Sean P.; Johnston, Lois A.; Behrens, Richard, Jr. & Wiese-Smith, Deneille. Evaluation of ingredients for the development of new insensitive munitions., report, December 1, 2004; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc897742/: accessed September 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.