Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications Metadata

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Title

  • Main Title Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

Creator

  • Author: Parks, James E., II
    Creator Type: Personal
    Creator Info: ORNL
  • Author: Storey, John Morse
    Creator Type: Personal
    Creator Info: ORNL
  • Author: Theiss, Timothy J.
    Creator Type: Personal
    Creator Info: ORNL
  • Author: Ponnusamy, Senthil
    Creator Type: Personal
    Creator Info: ORNL
  • Author: Ferguson, Harley Douglas
    Creator Type: Personal
    Creator Info: ORNL
  • Author: Williams, Aaron M.
    Creator Type: Personal
    Creator Info: ORNL
  • Author: Tassitano, James B.
    Creator Type: Personal
    Creator Info: ORNL

Contributor

  • Sponsor: OE USDOE - Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution
    Contributor Type: Organization

Publisher

  • Name: Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Place of Publication: [Tennessee]
    Additional Info: ORNL
  • Name: Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center
    Place of Publication: United States

Date

  • Creation: 2007-09-01

Language

  • English

Description

  • Content Description: Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation, reformer, and lean NOx trap catalysts. The initial work on NOx reduction efficiency demonstrated that NOx emissions <0.1 g/bhp-hr (the ARES goal) can be achieved with the lean NOx trap catalyst technology. Subsequent work focused on cost and size optimization and durability issues which addressed two specific ARES areas of interest to industry ('Cost of Power' and 'Availability, Reliability, and Maintainability', respectively). Thus, the research addressed the approach of the lean NOx trap catalyst technology toward the ARES goals as shown in Table 1-1.

Subject

  • Keyword: Nitrogen
  • Keyword: Oxidation
  • STI Subject Categories: 33 Advanced Propulsion Systems
  • Keyword: Efficiency
  • Keyword: Nox
  • Keyword: Catalyst
  • Keyword: Internal Combustion Engines
  • STI Subject Categories: 08 Hydrogen
  • Keyword: Thermal Efficiency Lean Nox Trap
  • Keyword: Commercialization
  • Keyword: Natural Disasters
  • Keyword: Optimization
  • Keyword: Internal Combustion Engine
  • Keyword: Natural Gas
  • Keyword: Energy Recovery
  • Keyword: Operating Cost
  • STI Subject Categories: 03 Natural Gas
  • Keyword: Diesel Engines
  • Keyword: Hydrogen
  • Keyword: Reciprocating Engine
  • Keyword: Combustion
  • Keyword: Engines
  • Keyword: Lean
  • Keyword: Catalysts
  • Keyword: Lean Nox Trap
  • Keyword: Catalysis

Collection

  • Name: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports
    Code: OSTI

Institution

  • Name: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
    Code: UNTGD

Resource Type

  • Report

Format

  • Text

Identifier

  • Report No.: ORNL/TM-2007/140
  • Grant Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725
  • DOI: 10.2172/932107
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 932107
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc896904