Laboratory Investigations in Support of Dioxide-Limestone Sequestration in the Ocean Metadata

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  • Main Title Laboratory Investigations in Support of Dioxide-Limestone Sequestration in the Ocean


  • Author: Golomb, Dan
    Creator Type: Personal
  • Author: Barry, Eugene
    Creator Type: Personal
  • Author: Ryan, David
    Creator Type: Personal
  • Author: Pennell, Stephen
    Creator Type: Personal
  • Author: Lawton, Carl
    Creator Type: Personal
  • Author: Swett, Peter
    Creator Type: Personal
  • Author: Arora, Devinder
    Creator Type: Personal
  • Author: Hannon, John
    Creator Type: Personal
  • Author: Woods, Michael
    Creator Type: Personal
  • Author: Duan, Huishan
    Creator Type: Personal
  • Author: Lawlor, Tom
    Creator Type: Personal


  • Sponsor: United States. Department of Energy.
    Contributor Type: Organization


  • Name: University of Massachusetts
    Place of Publication: United States


  • Creation: 2008-09-30


  • English


  • Content Description: Research under this Project has proven that liquid carbon dioxide can be emulsified in water by using very fine particles as emulsion stabilizers. Hydrophilic particles stabilize a CO{sub 2}-in-H{sub 2}O (C/W) emulsion; hydrophobic particles stabilize a H{sub 2}O-in-CO{sub 2} (W/C) emulsion. The C/W emulsion consists of tiny CO{sub 2} droplets coated with hydrophilic particles dispersed in water. The W/C emulsion consists of tiny H{sub 2}O droplets coated with hydrophobic particles dispersed in liquid carbon dioxide. The coated droplets are called globules. The emulsions could be used for deep ocean sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Liquid CO{sub 2} is sparsely soluble in water, and is less dense than seawater. If neat, liquid CO{sub 2} were injected in the deep ocean, it is likely that the dispersed CO{sub 2} droplets would buoy upward and flash into vapor before the droplets dissolve in seawater. The resulting vapor bubbles would re-emerge into the atmosphere. On the other hand, the emulsion is denser than seawater, hence the emulsion plume would sink toward greater depth from the injection point. For ocean sequestration a C/W emulsion appears to be most practical using limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) particles of a few to ten ?m diameter as stabilizing agents. A mix of one volume of liquid CO{sub 2} with two volumes of H{sub 2}O, plus 0.5 weight of pulverized limestone per weight of liquid CO{sub 2} forms a stable emulsion with density 1087 kg m{sup -3}. Ambient seawater at 500 m depth has a density of approximately 1026 kg m{sup -3}, so the emulsion plume would sink by gravity while entraining ambient seawater till density equilibrium is reached. Limestone is abundant world-wide, and is relatively cheap. Furthermore, upon disintegration of the emulsion the CaCO{sub 3} particles would partially buffer the carbonic acid that forms when CO{sub 2} dissolves in seawater, alleviating some of the concerns of discharging CO{sub 2} in the deep ocean. Laboratory experiments showed that the CaCO{sub 3} emulsion is slightly alkaline, not acidic. We tested the release of the CO{sub 2}-in-H{sub 2}O emulsion stabilized by pulverized limestone in the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory High Pressure Water Tunnel Facility (HPWTF). Digital photographs showed the sinking globules in the HPWTF, confirming the concept of releasing the emulsion in the deep ocean. We modeled the release of an emulsion from the CO{sub 2} output of a 1000 MW coal-fired power plant at 500 m depth. The emulsion would typically sink several hundred meters before density equilibration with ambient seawater. The CO{sub 2} globules would rain out from the equilibrated plume toward the ocean bottom where they would disintegrate due to wave action and bottom friction. Conceptual release systems are described both for an open ocean release and a sloping seabed release of the emulsion.


  • Keyword: Limestone
  • Keyword: Carbon Dioxide
  • Keyword: Performance Testing
  • Keyword: Bench-Scale Experiments
  • Keyword: Density
  • Keyword: Marine Disposal
  • Keyword: Seawater
  • STI Subject Categories: 54 Environmental Sciences
  • Keyword: Emulsions
  • Keyword: Carbon Sequestration


  • Name: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports
    Code: OSTI


  • Name: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
    Code: UNTGD

Resource Type

  • Report


  • Text


  • Report No.: None
  • Grant Number: FC26-02NT41441
  • DOI: 10.2172/946136
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 946136
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc895776