Validation data for models of contaminant dispersal : scaling laws and data needs.

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Contaminant dispersal models for use at scales ranging from meters to miles are widely used for planning sensor locations, first-responder actions for release scenarios, etc. and are constantly being improved. Applications range from urban contaminant dispersal to locating buried targets from an exhaust signature. However, these models need detailed data for model improvement and validation. A small Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program was funded in FY04 to examine the feasibility and usefulness of a scale-model capability for quantitative characterization of flow and contaminant dispersal in complex environments. This report summarizes the work performed in that ... continued below

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32 p.

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O'Hern, Timothy John & Ceccio, Steven Louis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI) September 1, 2004.

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Description

Contaminant dispersal models for use at scales ranging from meters to miles are widely used for planning sensor locations, first-responder actions for release scenarios, etc. and are constantly being improved. Applications range from urban contaminant dispersal to locating buried targets from an exhaust signature. However, these models need detailed data for model improvement and validation. A small Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program was funded in FY04 to examine the feasibility and usefulness of a scale-model capability for quantitative characterization of flow and contaminant dispersal in complex environments. This report summarizes the work performed in that LDRD. The basics of atmospheric dispersion and dispersion modeling are reviewed. We examine the need for model scale data, and the capability of existing model test methods. Currently, both full-scale and model scale experiments are performed in order to collect validation data for numerical models. Full-scale experiments are expensive, are difficult to repeat, and usually produce relatively sparse data fields. Model scale tests often employ wind tunnels, and the data collected is, in many cases, derived from single point measurements. We review the scaling assumptions and methods that are used to relate model and full scale flows. In particular, we examine how liquid flows may be used to examine the process of atmospheric dispersion. The scaling between liquid and gas flows is presented. Use of liquid as the test fluid has some advantages in terms of achieving fully turbulent Reynolds numbers and in seeding the flow with neutrally buoyant tracer particles. In general, using a liquid flow instead of a gas flow somewhat simplifies the use of full field diagnostics, such as Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Induced Fluorescence. It is also possible to create stratified flows through mixtures of fluids (e.g., water, alcohol, and brine). Lastly, we describe our plan to create a small prototype water flume for the modeling of stratified atmospheric flows around complex objects. The incoming velocity profile could be tailored to produce a realistic atmospheric boundary layer for flow-in-urban-canyon measurements. The water tunnel would allow control of stratification to produce, for example, stable and unstable atmospheric conditions. Models ranging from a few buildings to cityscapes would be used as the test section. Existing noninvasive diagnostics would be applied, including particle image velocimetry for detailed full-field velocity measurement, and laser induced fluorescence for noninvasive concentration measurement. This scale-model facility will also be used as a test-bed for data acquisition and model testing related to the inverse problem, i.e., determination of source location from distributed, sparse measurement locations. In these experiments the velocity field would again be measured and data from single or multiple concentration monitors would be used to locate the continuous or transient source.

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32 p.

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  • Report No.: SAND2004-5220
  • Grant Number: AC04-94AL85000
  • DOI: 10.2172/920131 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 920131
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc895354

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) is the Department of Energy (DOE) office that collects, preserves, and disseminates DOE-sponsored research and development (R&D) results that are the outcomes of R&D projects or other funded activities at DOE labs and facilities nationwide and grantees at universities and other institutions.

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  • September 1, 2004

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Sept. 27, 2016, 1:39 a.m.

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  • Dec. 2, 2016, 6:04 p.m.

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O'Hern, Timothy John & Ceccio, Steven Louis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI). Validation data for models of contaminant dispersal : scaling laws and data needs., report, September 1, 2004; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc895354/: accessed October 17, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.