Enzymatic Upgrading of Heavy Crudes via Partial Oxidation or Conversion of PAHs

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The objective of this program was to investigate new enzyme-based technologies for upgrading of heavy oils. Enzymes were selected for screening from those capable of conversion of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) reported in the literature. Oxidative reactions of PAHs using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant with conversion to partially oxidized products were used. The enzymes (lignin peroxidase, cytochrome c) were tested in various organic solvents and found to loose activity in pure organic solvents. A thermodynamic analysis revealed lack of effective interaction between the substrate and enzyme as the cause for low activity. The protein cytochrome c was modified to work ... continued below

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Borole, A.P.; Davison, B.H. & Kuritz, T. July 1, 2002.

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The objective of this program was to investigate new enzyme-based technologies for upgrading of heavy oils. Enzymes were selected for screening from those capable of conversion of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) reported in the literature. Oxidative reactions of PAHs using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant with conversion to partially oxidized products were used. The enzymes (lignin peroxidase, cytochrome c) were tested in various organic solvents and found to loose activity in pure organic solvents. A thermodynamic analysis revealed lack of effective interaction between the substrate and enzyme as the cause for low activity. The protein cytochrome c was modified to work in organic media by chemical hydrophobic group attachment. Two different modifications were made: attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and alkyl groups. Alkyl groups, being small could be attached at interior locations within the core of the enzyme and possibly near the active site. Increase in the threshold solvent concentration where maximum enzyme activity occurred indicated potential of this strategy for effective enzyme-substrate interaction. Further improvements in enzyme activity called for other diverse methods due to the unavailability of sufficient chemical modification sites. Genetic techniques were therefore explored for further improvements. These experiments focused on cloning of a gene for the fungal enzyme lignin peroxidase (lip) into yeast Pichia pastoris, which would allow easy manipulation of the gene. However, differences in the fungal and yeast cellular machinery impeded significant expression of the fungal enzyme. Several strategies were explored to allow higher-level expression of the enzyme, which was required for enzyme improvement. The strategies used in this investigation are described in the report. Industrial in-kind support was available throughout the project period. review of the research results was carried out on a regular basis (bimonthly reports and annual meetings) followed by suggestions for improvement in ongoing work and direction for future work. A significant portion of the industrial support was in the form of technical consultation and expert advice via meetings and phone conversations.

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  • Report No.: ORNL00-0574
  • Grant Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725
  • DOI: 10.2172/940405 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 940405
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc894441

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • July 1, 2002

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Sept. 27, 2016, 1:39 a.m.

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  • Sept. 22, 2017, 6:28 p.m.

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Borole, A.P.; Davison, B.H. & Kuritz, T. Enzymatic Upgrading of Heavy Crudes via Partial Oxidation or Conversion of PAHs, report, July 1, 2002; Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc894441/: accessed October 21, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.