The Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium Using Small Coolers

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This report discusses the history of the liquefaction of hydrogen and helium using small coolers. This history dates form the 1960's when two stage GM coolers capable of reaching 7 K were used to liquefy helium and hydrogen by suing an added compressor and J-T circuit. Liquefaction using the added circuit failed to become mainstream because the J-T valve and heat exchanger clogged because of impurities in the gas being liquefied. Liquefaction using a GM cooler without an added J-T circuit proved to be difficult because the first stage was not used to pre-cool the gas coming to the second ... continued below

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Green, Michael A. February 12, 2006.

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Description

This report discusses the history of the liquefaction of hydrogen and helium using small coolers. This history dates form the 1960's when two stage GM coolers capable of reaching 7 K were used to liquefy helium and hydrogen by suing an added compressor and J-T circuit. Liquefaction using the added circuit failed to become mainstream because the J-T valve and heat exchanger clogged because of impurities in the gas being liquefied. Liquefaction using a GM cooler without an added J-T circuit proved to be difficult because the first stage was not used to pre-cool the gas coming to the second stage of the cooler. Once the gas being liquefied was pre-cooled using the cooler first stage, improvements in the liquefaction rates were noted. The advent of low temperature pulse tube cooler (down to 2.5 K) permitted one to achieve dramatic improvement is the liquefactions rates for helium. Similar but less dramatic improvements are expected for hydrogen as well. Using the PT-415 cooler, one can expect liquefaction rates of 15 to 20 liters per day for helium or hydrogen provided the heat leak into the cooler and the storage vessel is low. A hydrogen liquefier for MICE is presented at the end of this report.

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  • Report No.: LBNL--62459
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231
  • DOI: 10.2172/918495 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 918495
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc891328

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Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) is the Department of Energy (DOE) office that collects, preserves, and disseminates DOE-sponsored research and development (R&D) results that are the outcomes of R&D projects or other funded activities at DOE labs and facilities nationwide and grantees at universities and other institutions.

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Creation Date

  • February 12, 2006

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Sept. 22, 2016, 2:13 a.m.

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  • Dec. 8, 2016, 8:31 p.m.

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Green, Michael A. The Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium Using Small Coolers, report, February 12, 2006; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc891328/: accessed September 19, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.