Understanding How Femtosecond Laser Waveguide Fabrication in Glasses Works Page: 4 of 131
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Wilbur Jordan Reichman
Understanding How Femtosecond Laser Waveguide Fabrication in Glasses Works
In order to understand the physical processes associated with fs-laser waveguide writing
in glass, the effects of the laser repetition rate, the material composition and feature size
were studied. The resulting material changes were observed by collecting Raman and
fluorescence spectra with a confocal microscope. The guiding behavior of the
waveguides was evaluated by measuring near field laser coupling profiles in combination
with white light microscopy.
Waveguides and Bragg gratings were fabricated in fused silica using pulse repetition
rates from 1 kHz to 1 MHz and a wide range of scan speeds and pulse energies. Two
types of fluorescence were detected in fused silica, depending on the fabrication
conditions. Fluorescence from self trapped exciton (Es) defects, centered at 550 nm,
were dominant for conditions with low total doses, such as using a 1 kHz laser with a
scan speed of 20 pm /s and pulse energies less than 1 pJ. For higher doses a broad
fluorescence band, centered at 650 nm, associated with non-bridging oxygen hole center
(NBOHC) defects was observed. Far fewer NBOHC defects were formed with the 1 MHz
laser than with the kHz lasers possibly due to annealing of the defects during writing. We
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Reichman, W J. Understanding How Femtosecond Laser Waveguide Fabrication in Glasses Works, thesis or dissertation, May 11, 2006; Livermore, California. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc891320/m1/4/?rotate=90: accessed April 23, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.