Field Trial Results of an Improved Refractory Material for Slagging Gasifiers Page: 4 of 9
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Figure 3 - Refractory surface wear dominated by chemical corrosive (dissolution). Evidence of surface spalling is
shown by scalloped brick surface in circled area.
Refractory spalling in slagging gasifiers is a complex process involving factors such as slag chemistry,
interactions between slag and the refractory grain, slag infiltration/penetration of interconnected porosity,
thermal cycling with the associated thermal expansion mismatch, stresses resulting from gasifier design,
and long term creep. Bakker  discussed how refractory spalling can incrementally remove large
portions of a gasifier refractory thickness, rapidly shortening service life as material is physically
removed versus a slow chemical dissolution of material in a slag.
Spalling, combined with chemical corrosion, are the predominant wear mechanisms, and are shown in
figure 4 on a refractory brick removed from the sidewall of a gasifier. Chemical corrosion is evident on
the surface of the refractory, while spalling is occurring on the surface and the interior, and is marked
with arrows in figure 4-a. A cross section of the refractory brick, with visible slag penetration of
approximately 4 mm into the hot face, is shown in figure 4-b. In this slag penetrated area, an internal
void is opening parallel to the hot face, which is in the process of spalling.
Figure 4 - Sidewall refractory brick removed from a gasifier. (a) chemical dissolution and severe spalling (yellow
arrows point to spalled areas), (b) internal voids due to spalling (yellow arrow).
Many factors influence refractory wear in an air-cooled slagging gasifier using a high chrome oxide
lining, which are summarized in figure 5 from observations/post-mortem analysis of spent refractories.
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Bennett, J. P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C. P.; Petty, A. V., Jr.; Thomas, H.; Prior, H. D. et al. Field Trial Results of an Improved Refractory Material for Slagging Gasifiers, article, September 1, 2006; [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania]. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc890929/m1/4/: accessed October 16, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.