Design considerations for fast-cycling superconducting accelerator magnets of 2 T B-field generated by a transmission line conductor of up to 100 kA current Page: 1 of 4
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cryogenic cooling power will facilitate such undertakings.
Abstract-Recently proposed synchrotrons, SF-SPS at CERN
and DSF-MR at Fermilab, would operate with a 0.5 Hz cycle (or
2 second time period) while accelerating protons to 480 GeV. We
examine possibilities of superconducting magnet technology that
would allow for an accelerator quality magnetic field sweep of 2
T/s. For superconducting magnets the cryogenic cooling power
demand due to AC losses in the superconductor leads to a high
operational cost. We outline a novel magnet technology based on
HTS superconductors that may allow to reduce AC losses in the
magnet coil possibly up to an order of magnitude as compared to
similar applications based on LTS type superconductors.
Index Terms- Superconducting accelerator magnets, HTS
superconductor, transmission line conductor, magnet AC losses.
T HE long-baseline neutrino oscillation search experiments
require very high intensity neutrino beams. The time-
averaged power on the neutrino production target depends on
the proton beam energy, proton intensity per pulse and the
pulse repetition rate. As the operation of accelerators built 3-4
decades ago becomes more and more difficult they must be
stopped or be replaced with new machines. This opens the
opportunity to rebuild them in a way that it will suit best the
needs of contemporary high-energy particle physics. For
instance, with the fast cycling SPS , in addition to
improving the prospects of the neutrino physics, the LHC
operations would also significantly benefit from compressed
beam stacking time. The closing of the Tevatron operations in
a few years will allow the use of its existing infrastructure
(tunnel, cryogenic support and power distribution) for the
construction of a fast-cycling dual proton synchrotron, DSF-
MR  that would produce up to 10 MW of power at the
neutrino production targets. The proposed new Fermilab
layout is shown in Fig. 1. As the DSF-MR and the SF-SPS
circumferences are ~ 6.3 km and ~ 6.9 km, respectively, a new
superconducting magnet technology with strongly reduced
Manuscript received August 27, 2007. This work has been authored by Fermi
Research Alliance, LLC under DOE Contract DE-AC02-07CH11359.
H. Piekarz, S. Hays, Y. Huang V.V Kashikhin are with FERMILAB, Batavia,
Il 60510, USA (phone: 630-840-2105; fax: 630-840-8036; e-mail:
G. de Rijk, L. Rossi are with CERN, Geneva 23, Switzerland.
7li m. 8lIrc
Fig 1. The proposed accelerator complex at Fermilab with the DSF-MR
accelerator. Two 480 GeV proton beams could be interchangeably extracted
on up to 5 different neutrino production targets.
One may observe that smaller machines, such as the Booster at
Fermilab or the PS at CERN (both need to be replaced due to
old age), would greatly benefit from the new fast-cycling
superconducting magnet technology. In this paper we describe
magnetic and conductor designs while the matching power
supply and current leads designs are presented in  and .
II. MAGNETIC DESIGN
Assuming ~ 80% dipole occupancy the required B-field for
a 480 GeV beam in the DSF-MR and SF-SPS accelerators is
~2 Tesla, and for 0.5 Hz cycle the dB/dt is 2 T/s. Until now all
fast-cycling synchrotrons (e.g. SPS at CERN, Main Injector at
Fermilab) were based on the conventional magnet technology
as fast cycling superconducting magnet technology did not
exist. The copper windings which powered these magnets are
cooled with water while delivering the necessary current. A
very serious downside of this method is the necessity of using
large coils, which in turn require large cores to preserve the
required high quality of the B-field in the magnet gap.
However, it has been demonstrated in past few years , that
using superconducting coils is feasible in fast-cycling
magnets, while reduction of the core size is typically by a
factor of 10.
The window-frame magnetic core is an obvious choice due
to its minimal size while allowing a high quality B-field in the
magnet beam gap. For the SF-SPS and DSF-MR accelerators
the magnet gap has to be no less than 40 mm. An example of
the core design for such a gap using a single-turn conductor is
Design Considerations for Fast-Cycling
Superconducting Accelerator Magnets of 2 T B-
Field Generated by a Transmission Line
Conductor of up to 100 kA Current
Henryk Piekarz, Steven Hays, Yuenian Huang, Vadim Kashikhin, Gijsbert de Rijk and Lucio Rossi
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Piekarz, Henryk; Hays, Steven; Huang, Yuenian; Kashikhin, Vadim; de Rijk, Gijsbert & Rossi, Lucio. Design considerations for fast-cycling superconducting accelerator magnets of 2 T B-field generated by a transmission line conductor of up to 100 kA current, article, August 1, 2007; Batavia, Illinois. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc888326/m1/1/: accessed November 19, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.