An Approach to Industrial Stormwater Benchmarks: Establishing and Using Site-Specific Threshold Criteria at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Page: 9 of 12
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Table 1. LLNL site-specific threshold criteria.
Parameter Livermore site
Total suspended solids (TSS) 750 mg/La
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) 200 mg/La
pH <6.0, >8.5a
Nitrate (as NO3) 10 mg/La
Orthophosphate 2.5 mg/La
Beryllium 1.6 pg/La
Chromium (VI) 15 pg/La
Copper 36 pg/La
Lead 15 pg/L
Zinc 350 pg/La
Mercury Above RLC
Diuron 14 pg/La
Oil and grease 9 mg/La
Tritium 36 Bq/La
Gross alpha radioactivity 0.34 Bq/La
Gross beta radioactivity 0.48 Bq/La
a Site-specific value calculated from historical data and studies. These values are lower than the other
regulatory reference values except for Cu, Zn, TSS, and COD.
b California and EPA drinking water action level.
RL = analytical reporting limit = 0.0002 mg/L for mercury.
LLNL stormwater analysts review the analytic results from the storm water monitoring
as compared with the threshold values. Table 2 presents a typical comparison table for
two water years. All data exceeding thresholds are included, whether influent or
effluent. Color shading highlights the watershed paths. Locations ALPO, ALPE, GRNE
are influent locations that correspond to the WPDC effluent location on the Arroyo Las
Positas watershed. ASS2 is the influent location that corresponds to the ASW effluent
location on the Arroyo Seco watershed. Boldfaced values are those that exceed the
threshold at an effluent point.
Table 2. Summary of constituents in stormwater found to be greater than
threshold comparison criteria for two typical water years.
the LLNL specific
Influent or Threshold
Parameter Date Location Effluent Result criteriaa
Water Year 2000-2001
Copper 02/12/01 ASS2 Influent 0.018 0.013
Copper 04/06/01 ALPE Influent 0.017 0.013
Copper 04/06/01 ALPO Influent 0.023 0.013
Copper 04/06/01 WPDC Effluent 0.015 0.013
Diuron 02/12/01 GRNE Influent 0.079 0.014
Diuron 02/12/01 ALPO Influent 0.080 0.014
Diuron 03/02/01 ALPO Influent 0.093 0.014
Diuron 03/02/01 GRNE Influent 0.036 0.014
Diuron 03/02/01 WPDC Effluent 0.013 0.014
Diuron 04/06/01 ALPO Influent 0.018 0.014
Lead 02/12/01 ASS2 Influent 0.015 0.015
Oil and grease 01/08/01 WPDC Effluent 14 9
Zinc 01/10/01 ASS2 Influent 0.25 0.117
Zinc 01/08/01 ASW Effluent 0.20 0.117
Zinc 02/12/01 ASS2 Influent 0.39 0.117
Zinc 03/02/01 WPDC Effluent 0.12 0.117
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Campbell, C G & Mathews, S. An Approach to Industrial Stormwater Benchmarks: Establishing and Using Site-Specific Threshold Criteria at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, article, September 7, 2006; Livermore, California. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc886697/m1/9/: accessed March 24, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.