Use of Federated Object Modeling to Develop a Macro-System Model for the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program; Preprint Page: 3 of 11
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USE OF FEDERATED OBJECT MODELING TO DEVELOP A MACRO-SYSTEM MODEL
FOR THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S HYDROGEN PROGRAM*
Mark F. Ruth
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
1617 Cole Blvd
Golden, CO 80401, U.S.A.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is working on
changing our transportation fuel from gasoline to hydro-
gen. To assist in that effort, we are developing a macro-
system model (MSM) that will link existing or develop-
mental component models together to analyze crosscutting
hydrogen issues. The MSM uses a federated simulation
framework that extends the High Level Architecture
(HLA). In this initial phase, three existing models have
been linked to analyze two primary issues. The first issue
we will examine will be the combined price of hydrogen
production and delivery and the second will be a compari-
son of energy requirements and air emissions for multiple
hydrogen production / delivery pathways (i.e., hydrogen
produced from different feedstocks and transported via dif-
ferent means). Future work will involve linking other mod-
els to allow us to better analyze transition issues and mak-
ing the MSM available to the hydrogen analysis
Concerns about the availability of fossil fuels and the im-
pact of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions on the environment
and human health have caused an increasing interest in the
use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. Using hydrogen in-
stead of hydrocarbons for transportation has the potential
to reduce or virtually eliminate vehicular emissions of most
pollutants including CO2 although it could just displace
those emissions to the hydrogen production facilities. Ad-
ditionally, the distributed nature of hydrogen production
* This work has been authored by an employee of the Midwest Re-
search Institute under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337 with the
U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains
and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowl-
edges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive,
paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the
published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United
States Government purposes.
Keith B. Vanderveen
Timothy J. Sa
Sandia National Laboratories
7011 East Avenue
Livermore, CA 94550, U.S.A.
promises to greatly improve national energy security. For
these reasons, during his 2003 State of the Union Address,
President Bush launched the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative with
the objective of replacing petroleum-based transportation
fuels with hydrogen (U.S. Department of Energy 2005).
As a result of the State of the Union Address, the Na-
tional Research Council (NRC) convened a committee to
study the opportunities, costs, barriers, and research and
development needs for the hydrogen economy. Their rec-
ommendations have helped direct work within the Hydro-
gen Fuel Initiative. In the NRC's 2004 report, they rec-
ommended that a systems analysis function be formed
within the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to analyze the systems
and subsystems under development, the character of com-
petitive approaches for providing energy services, potential
future energy scenarios, and how proposed technologies
might fit into a national system (NRC 2004).
The Systems Analysis function recognized that the
Hydrogen Initiative had already developed or has begun
developing many models covering different aspects of a
possible hydrogen economy. Those models fall into the
" Models that estimate the cost and resources neces-
sary to produce hydrogen through various path-
" Models that simulate the methods, costs, and re-
sources necessary to deliver and distribute hydro-
gen to vehicles,
" Models that simulate vehicle performance;
" Both spatial and non-spatial models that estimate
development and costs to deploy the necessary
vehicle-fueling infrastructure, and
" Models that simulate market transition from to-
day's petroleum economy to a future hydrogen
The Systems Analysis function determined that a
macro-system model (MSM) would be necessary for ana-
lyzing cross-cutting issues because no existing model en-
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Ruth, M. F.; Vanderveen, K. B. & Sa, T. J. Use of Federated Object Modeling to Develop a Macro-System Model for the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Program; Preprint, article, July 1, 2006; Golden, Colorado. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc885047/m1/3/: accessed February 19, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.