Physical and Numerical Analysis of Extrusion Process for Production of Bimetallic Tubes Page: 77 of 108
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Fig. 4.47. Development stages in diffusional bonding/
solid state welding. (a) Initial contact-limited to a few
asperities (room temperature), (b) first stage-deformation of
surface asperities by plastic flow and creep, (c) second
stage-grain boundary diffusion of atoms to the voids and
grain boundary migration, and (d) third stage-volume
diffusion of atoms to the voids (Source: "Coextrusion
Welding," ASM Handbook, Vol. 6: Welding, Brazing, and
Soldering, ASM International, USA, 1993).
Fig. 4.48. Interface between (left) 1020 steel and (right)
304 stainless steel cut from the shrink-fit billet after
2.5 h at 1200oC. The sample was etched with agitated
60 mL HCI, 60 mL HNO3, and 60 mL distilled H2O for 30 s.
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Misiolek, W. Z. & Sikka, V. K. Physical and Numerical Analysis of Extrusion Process for Production of Bimetallic Tubes, report, August 10, 2006; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc884646/m1/77/: accessed October 21, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.