Physical and Numerical Analysis of Extrusion Process for Production of Bimetallic Tubes Page: 75 of 108
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Electron microprobe analysis was performed at 20 keV using a JEOL 733 electron microprobe with
an Advanced Microbeam Control system. Mapping of the interface was performed using electron
dispersive spectrum (EDS) for Cr, Ni, and Fe, while wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) was
used to map C with 0.15 s dwell per spot. Quantitative line scans (ZAF corrected) were produced at
2-pm steps. The LiF crystals were used for Cr, Ni, Fe, and Mn while a LDEII crystal was used for C.
For each element, the on-peak time was 40 s, while the off-peak times were 20 s. Samples from the
Gleeble and industrial experiments were used for orientation imaging microscopy characterization.
EBSD was performed using an EDAX/TSL Digiview Camera interfaced with a Philips XL-30
Environmental scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
4.3.5 Microstructural Analysis
Effective strain and strain rate from the point tracking in FEM for the two extrusion ratios are shown
in Figs. 4.39 through 4.42. Values of strain and strain rate used for the Gleeble simulation were the
maximum that the material was subjected to during extrusion. Once the material passed through the
die orifice, the strain or strain rate did not increase.
The microstructure of the stock 1020 plain carbon sleeve material can be observed in Fig. 4.44. The
material exhibits banded pearlite/ferrite microstructure, which is typical of extruded or rolled
materials. The microstructure of the stock 304 stainless steel consists of equiaxed austenite grains
with delta ferrite stringers (Fig. 4.45).
Fig. 4.44. Banded pearlite in a longitudinal section of 1020 plain carbon steel stock material prior to
processing: etched using 4% picral for 25 s.
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Misiolek, W. Z. & Sikka, V. K. Physical and Numerical Analysis of Extrusion Process for Production of Bimetallic Tubes, report, August 10, 2006; United States. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc884646/m1/75/: accessed March 24, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.