Sea anemone genome reveals the gene repertoire and genomicorganization of the eumetazoan ancestor Page: 1 of 97
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Sea anemone genome reveals the gene repertoire and
genomic organization of the eumetazoan ancestor
Nicholas H. Putnam, Mansi Srivastava, Uffe Hellsten, Bill Dirks, Jarrod Chapman,
Asaf Salamov, Astrid Terry, Harris Shapiro, Erika Lindquist, Vladimir V.
Kapitonov, Jerzy Jurka, Grigory Genikhovich, Igor Grigoriev[l], JGI Sequencing
Team, Robert E. Steele, John Finnerty, Ulrich Technau, Mark Q. Martindale,
Daniel S. Rokhsar[1,2]
 Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598
 Center for Integrative Genomics and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University
of California, Berkeley CA 94720
 Genetic Information Research Institute, 1925 Landings Drive, Mountain View, CA 94043
 Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen,
Thormoeohlensgt 55; 5008, Bergen, Norway
 Department of Biological Chemistry and the Developmental Biology Center, University of
California, Irvine, CA 92697
 Department of Biology, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215
 Kewalo Marine Laboratory, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96813
Sea anemones are seemingly primitive animals that, along with corals, jellyfish, and hydras,
constitute the Cnidaria, the oldest eumetazoan phylum. Here we report a comparative analysis of
the draft genome of an emerging cnidarian model, the starlet anemone Nematostella vectensis.
The anemone genome is surprisingly complex, with a gene repertoire, exon-intron structure, and
large-scale gene linkage more similar to vertebrates than to flies or nematodes. These results
imply that the genome of the eumetazoan ancestor was similarly complex, and that fly and
nematode genomes have been modified via sequence divergence, gene and intron loss, and
genomic rearrangement. Nearly one-fifth of the genes of the ancestor are eumetazoan novelties
in the sense that they have no recognizable homologs outside of animals, or contain new protein
domains and/or domain combinations that are not found in other eukaryotes. These eumetazoan-
specific genes are enriched for animal functions like cell signaling, adhesion, and synaptic
transmission, and analysis of diverse pathways suggests that these gene "inventions" along the
lineage leading to animals were already likely well integrated with pre-existing eukaryotic genes
in the eumetazoan progenitor. Subsequent diversification in the cnidarian and bilaterian lineages
was therefore associated with new regulatory linkages and higher-level integration of these pre-
existing pathways and networks.
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Putnam, Nicholas H.; Srivastava, Mansi; Hellsten, Uffe; Dirks,Bill; Chapman, Jarrod; Salamov, Asaf et al. Sea anemone genome reveals the gene repertoire and genomicorganization of the eumetazoan ancestor, article, January 1, 2007; Berkeley, California. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc884638/m1/1/: accessed May 25, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.