Preliminary Evaluation of the Copper Sulfate Process for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide Over a Range of Geothermal Steam Conditions

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The experimental work and economic analyses required for a preliminary evaluation of EIC's Copper Sulfate Process for a range of geothermal steam conditions have been completed. A series of six scrubbing runs was carried out over a range of steam conditions and scrub solution compositions expected to represent the extremes likely to be encountered in practice and high degrees of H{sub 2}S removal were obtained in all cases. Solids produced in these runs were subjected to liquid-solid separation and regeneration tests to determine the influence of scrubbing conditions on the kinetics of subsequent steps, and capital and operating cost estimates ... continued below

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3-28-3-37

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Brown, F.C. December 1, 1980.

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The experimental work and economic analyses required for a preliminary evaluation of EIC's Copper Sulfate Process for a range of geothermal steam conditions have been completed. A series of six scrubbing runs was carried out over a range of steam conditions and scrub solution compositions expected to represent the extremes likely to be encountered in practice and high degrees of H{sub 2}S removal were obtained in all cases. Solids produced in these runs were subjected to liquid-solid separation and regeneration tests to determine the influence of scrubbing conditions on the kinetics of subsequent steps, and capital and operating cost estimates were developed for the extremes of conditions evaluated. Test results show, as expected, that the kinetics and stoichiometry of the scrubbing reactions are complex: the rates and extent of the primary and secondary reactions are functions of scrubber operating temperature (pressure), scrub solution pH and copper content, and solids residence time. Relative to The Geysers' average conditions, operation at higher pressures leads to increased H{sub 2}S and decreased NH{sub 3} removal efficiencies. At lower pressures, higher pH's and/or copper contents or longer vapor-liquid contact times are required to obtain comparable H{sub 2}S removal efficiencies, while NH{sub 3} removal efficiencies are improved at comparable pH's. The solids obtained from each scrubbing run were produced under a range of conditions since scrub solution compositions were varied, as was solids residence time throughout. Within the range of variables tested, the trend is toward improved liquid-solid separation behavior for solids produced at higher pressures. Even though the range of compression times varied by a factor of two, the solids produced at the lowest pressures still settled rapidly enough and with sufficient overflow clarity to indicate that simple decantation would be the optimum approach for this step. The results of regeneration tests on these solids were much more variable, however, showing a definite correlation between scrubbing conditions and regeneration kinetics: solids produced at lower pressures were more readily regenerated than those produced at higher pressures. While complete regeneration was obtained in all cases, the times required varied by a factor of five at equal reaction temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. We believe that both liquid-solid separation and regeneration kinetics are determined by the nature of the solids formed in the scrubber, particularly the specific surface or average particle size, as well as their chemical composition.

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3-28-3-37

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  • Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Geothermal Conference and Workshop, Conference Proceedings, December 1980

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  • Report No.: EPRI-TC-80-907-8
  • Grant Number: None
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 892084
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc883895

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  • December 1, 1980

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  • Sept. 21, 2016, 2:29 a.m.

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  • Nov. 30, 2016, 5:13 p.m.

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Brown, F.C. Preliminary Evaluation of the Copper Sulfate Process for Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide Over a Range of Geothermal Steam Conditions, article, December 1, 1980; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc883895/: accessed September 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.