Neutrino scattering physics and experiments at super beams and neutrino factories Page: 3 of 5
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CC Coherent Pion Production Cross Section
. FNAL (CC), Alderholz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2349 (1989)
. Aachen (NC), Faissner, Phys. Lett. 1258, 230 (1983)
o GGM (NC), Isiksal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1096 (1984)
o SKAT (CC), Grabosch, Z. Phys C31, 203 (1986)
. SKAT (NC), Grabosch, Z Phys C31, 203 (1986)
BEBC (CC), Maroge, Z Phys. C43, 523 (1989)
* CHARM (CC), Bergsmo, Phys. Lett. 157 B, 469 (1985)
CHARM II (CC), Vilain, Phys. Lett. 313B, 267 (1993)
-( +A - + + A)
0 2.5 5
7.5 10 12.5 15
Figure 1. MINERvA's simulated CC coherent cross-
section measurement, assuming a 4-year run, statisti-
cal errors only, compared with published data.
have been used to study the differential cross-
sections. Comparison of the overall rates of NC and
CC production, as well as the pion energy and angu-
lar distributions will allow valuable tests of the vari-
ous models. For several recent models, the predicted
NC/CC ratios in coherent scattering differ by around
MINERvA will also have compared the reaction
rates for lead, iron and carbon. The A dependence
of the cross-section depends mainly on the assumed
model of the hadron-nucleus interaction and serves
as a crucial test for that component of the predic-
The MINERvA results  will have eliminated
several models for coherent production by the time
a SNBF comes on-line. Similar accuracy for v can
only be achieved with SNBF.
1.4. Nuclear Effects in Neutrino Scattering
Analysis of neutrino reactions with nuclear media
requires understanding the nuclear environment's ef-
fect on the process . There are two general cate-
gories of such nuclear effects:
* The neutrino interaction probability on nuclei is
modified relative to free nucleons. Nuclear ef-
fects of this type have been extensively studied
in DIS structure function measurements using
muon and electron beams, but have not been ex-
plored with neutrinos. Depending on the kine-
matic region, these nuclear effects can be quite
different for neutrinos, particularly the shadow-
ing phenomenon .
* Hadrons produced in a nuclear target may un-
dergo final-state interactions (FSI), including
re-scattering and absorption. These effects may
significantly alter the observed final-state con-
figuration and measured energy [22,23], and
are sizable at neutrino energies typical of cur-
rent and planned oscillation experiments .
The hadron shower observed in neutrino experi-
ments is actually the convolution of these two ef-
fects. FSI effects are dependent on the specific fi-
nal states that, even for free protons, differ for neu-
trino and charged-lepton reactions. The suppression
or enhancement of particular final states by nuclear
effects also differ for neutrino and charged lepton re-
actions. For these reasons, measurements of nuclear
effects with charged leptons cannot be simply applied
to neutrino-nucleus interactions.
It has recently been suggested that, for a given Q2,
shadowing can occur at much lower energy transfer
(v) for neutrinos than for charged leptons. This effect
is unaccounted for in neutrino event generators. As
explained in , for a given Q2 the cross-section
suppression due to shadowing occurs for much lower
energy transfer (v) in neutrino interactions than for
charged leptons. More recently, Kulagin & Petti 
have constructed a model of nuclear effects in neu-
trino interactions that takes account of all phenomena
and produces the predicted ratio of structure functions
measured off a heavy nucleus compared to an aver-
age nucleon. Figure 2 shows the predicted difference
between neutrino and charged lepton shadowing as
a function of the energy transfer (v) for the ratio of
iron to deuterium. Clearly this is an important effect,
and without MINERvA, there are no data available to
MINERvA will have carefully studied these ef-
fects with targets of carbon, iron and lead .
y. " ".
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Morfin, J.G. Neutrino scattering physics and experiments at super beams and neutrino factories, article, January 1, 2006; Batavia, Illinois. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc881892/m1/3/: accessed January 17, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.