Normal and Pathological NCAT Image and PhantomData Based onPhysiologically Realistic Left Ventricle Finite-Element Models

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The 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom, whichprovides a realistic model of the normal human anatomy and cardiac andrespiratory motions, is used in medical imaging research to evaluate andimprove imaging devices and techniques, especially dynamic cardiacapplications. One limitation of the phantom is that it lacks the abilityto accurately simulate altered functions of the heart that result fromcardiac pathologies such as coronary artery disease (CAD). The goal ofthis work was to enhance the 4D NCAT phantom by incorporating aphysiologically based, finite-element (FE) mechanical model of the leftventricle (LV) to simulate both normal and abnormal cardiac motions. Thegeometry of the FE mechanical model ... continued below

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Veress, Alexander I.; Segars, W. Paul; Weiss, Jeffrey A.; Tsui,Benjamin M.W. & Gullberg, Grant T. August 2, 2006.

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The 4D NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom, whichprovides a realistic model of the normal human anatomy and cardiac andrespiratory motions, is used in medical imaging research to evaluate andimprove imaging devices and techniques, especially dynamic cardiacapplications. One limitation of the phantom is that it lacks the abilityto accurately simulate altered functions of the heart that result fromcardiac pathologies such as coronary artery disease (CAD). The goal ofthis work was to enhance the 4D NCAT phantom by incorporating aphysiologically based, finite-element (FE) mechanical model of the leftventricle (LV) to simulate both normal and abnormal cardiac motions. Thegeometry of the FE mechanical model was based on gated high-resolutionx-ray multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data of a healthy malesubject. The myocardial wall was represented as transversely isotropichyperelastic material, with the fiber angle varying from -90 degrees atthe epicardial surface, through 0 degreesat the mid-wall, to 90 degreesat the endocardial surface. A time varying elastance model was used tosimulate fiber contraction, and physiological intraventricular systolicpressure-time curves were applied to simulate the cardiac motion over theentire cardiac cycle. To demonstrate the ability of the FE mechanicalmodel to accurately simulate the normal cardiac motion as well abnormalmotions indicative of CAD, a normal case and two pathologic cases weresimulated and analyzed. In the first pathologic model, a subendocardialanterior ischemic region was defined. A second model was created with atransmural ischemic region defined in the same location. The FE baseddeformations were incorporated into the 4D NCAT cardiac model through thecontrol points that define the cardiac structures in the phantom whichwere set to move according to the predictions of the mechanical model. Asimulation study was performed using the FE-NCAT combination toinvestigate how the differences in contractile function between thesubendocardial and transmural infarcts manifest themselves in myocardialSPECT images. The normal FE model produced strain distributions that wereconsistent with those reported in the literature and a motion consistentwith that defined in the normal 4D NCAT beating heart model based ontagged MRI data. The addition of a subendocardial ischemic region changedthe average transmural circumferential strain from a contractile value of0.19 to a tensile value of 0.03. The addition of a transmural ischemicregion changed average circumferential strain to a value of 0.16, whichis consistent with data reported in the literature. Model resultsdemonstrated differences in contractile function between subendocardialand transmural infarcts and how these differences in function aredocumented in simulated myocardial SPECT images produced using the 4DNCAT phantom. In comparison to the original NCAT beating heart model, theFE mechanical model produced a more accurate simulation for the cardiacmotion abnormalities. Such a model, when incorporated into the 4D NCATphantom, has great potential for use in cardiac imaging research. Withits enhanced physiologically-based cardiac model, the 4D NCAT phantom canbe used to simulate realistic, predictive imaging data of a patientpopulation with varying whole-body anatomy and with varying healthy anddiseased states of the heart that will provide a known truth from whichto evaluate and improve existing and emerging 4D imaging techniques usedin the diagnosis of cardiac disease.

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  • Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging; Journal Volume: 25; Journal Issue: 12; Related Information: Journal Publication Date: 12/2006

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  • Report No.: LBNL--58924
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231
  • Grant Number: NIH:R01EB000121,HL71253
  • DOI: 10.1109/TMI.2006.884213 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 901810
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc881546

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  • August 2, 2006

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  • Sept. 22, 2016, 2:13 a.m.

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  • Sept. 29, 2016, 3:40 p.m.

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Veress, Alexander I.; Segars, W. Paul; Weiss, Jeffrey A.; Tsui,Benjamin M.W. & Gullberg, Grant T. Normal and Pathological NCAT Image and PhantomData Based onPhysiologically Realistic Left Ventricle Finite-Element Models, article, August 2, 2006; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc881546/: accessed August 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.