Insights Into Ground Shock in Jointed Rocks and the Response of Structures There-In Page: 3 of 52
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Insights Into Ground Shock in Jointed Rocks and the Response of Structures There-In
F. E. Heuze, J. P. Morris
Ground shock in rock masses is created by dynamic events such as rock-bursts, coal bumps or
man-made explosions. This article examines two aspects of the phenomenology: the propagation
of ground shock and its effects on underground structures. Numerous experiments, at all scales,
as well as numerical modeling clearly show that geologic discontinuities have a large influence
on ground shock propagation through their actions as wave-guides or as decoupling features.
Then, 3-dimensional discrete element (DE) numerical models provide additional insights into the
dynamic response of underground structures as influenced by joint orientation, joint spacing,
characteristics of the loading pulse (duration, peak velocity, peak displacement), and repeated
loadings. It is also shown that in hard rocks the deformability of rock blocks has a negligible
influence on tunnel dynamic structural response compared to that of the joint sets or bedding.
When viewed together with pictures of underground failures, the 3-D DE models are shown to
capture quite well the kinematics of jointed rocks, and their power is illustrated through a very
large simulation of an underground facility under dynamic loading.
1. GROUND SHOCK PROPAGATION
1.1 . Introduction
Multiple experiments at various scales have shown the peculiar attributes of ground shock
propagation in jointed media. They involved both conventional high explosives and nuclear
explosives. They reveal that the presence of geological interfaces such as joints, shears, bedding
planes and faults can both guide the ground motions along preferred directions and/or attenuate
those motions as they propagate across.
1.2 . Small-scale tests
A classic early result was provided by the "sugar shot" test . A firecracker was set off in a
cardboard box containing an array of sugar cubes, with the results shown in Figure 1. This very
inexpensive test ($4.50) showed that damage is propagated farther along directions perpendicular
to the two main sets of interfaces. This is because the interfaces are much stiffer in the normal
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Heuze, F E & Morris, J P. Insights Into Ground Shock in Jointed Rocks and the Response of Structures There-In, article, May 15, 2006; Livermore, California. (https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc880788/m1/3/: accessed April 20, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, https://digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.