Novel Approaches to Soft X-ray Spectroscopy: Scanning TransmissionX-ray Microscopy and Ambient Pressure X-Ray PhotoelectronSpectroscopy

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This workshop focused on novel spectroscopies at Beamlines 11.0.2, 5.3.2 and 9.3.2 at the ALS. The workshop brought together users from a wide range of fields to highlight recent experimental and technical developments both in scanning transmission X-ray spectroscopy (STXM) and ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES). The morning session featured talks on experiments involving new developments at the STXM, while the afternoon session was devoted to those using APXPS. In the morning session, Tolek Tyliszczak discussed the improved detector developments at the STXM, such as an avalanche photodiode detector and fluorescence and electron detection, as well as the continued development ... continued below

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Bluhm, Hendrik; Gilles, Mary K.; Mun, Simon B. & Tyliszczak, Tolek February 1, 2006.

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This workshop focused on novel spectroscopies at Beamlines 11.0.2, 5.3.2 and 9.3.2 at the ALS. The workshop brought together users from a wide range of fields to highlight recent experimental and technical developments both in scanning transmission X-ray spectroscopy (STXM) and ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES). The morning session featured talks on experiments involving new developments at the STXM, while the afternoon session was devoted to those using APXPS. In the morning session, Tolek Tyliszczak discussed the improved detector developments at the STXM, such as an avalanche photodiode detector and fluorescence and electron detection, as well as the continued development of in situ cells for heating, gas flow, and electrochemical cells. Of these, only the avalanche photodiode in combination with a novel multichannel photon-counting system is in routine use in time-resolved studies. Bartel Van Waeyenberge (Ghent University) presented results of magnetic imaging with a time resolution of 70-100 ps combined with a lateral resolution of 20-40 nm performed with the STXM (Beamline 11.0.2). As a complement to the time-domain ''pump-and-probe'' measurements, they developed a frequency-domain ''sine-excitation'' technique in order to study specific eigenmodes of these ferromagnetic patterns with high spatial resolution. This new approach was used to study the gyrotropic vortex motions in micron-sized ferromagnetic patterns. Adam Hitchcock (McMaster University) presented the development, in collaboration with Daniel Guay (INRS, Varennes) and Sherry Zhang, of the apparatus and techniques for applying STXM to in-situ studies of electrochemistry, in particular electrochromism in polyaniline. In addition, substantial progress was reported on a joint project to develop substrates and methods for chemically selective lithography of multilayer polymer systems. Selective patterns, such as that displayed in the figure, can now be written efficiently with the bend magnet STXM on Beamline 5.3.2. Yves Acremann (SSRL) discussed time and spatially resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments on spin transfer devices at the STXM (Beamline 11.0.2). These elegant experiments explore time resolved measurements of the magnetization dynamics within a 100 x 150 nm sample influenced by a spin-polarized current. This experiment shows that the magnetization in these magnetic nanostructures are not uniform, as they are influenced by the Oersted field of the charge current needed to generate the spin current. The implementation of a novel multichannel photon counting system in combination with an avalanche photon detector decreased the data-acquisition time by a factor of 10, owing to its ability to resolve the structure of multi bunch mode. Gordon E. Brown, Jr. (Stanford University and SSRL) described ''Applications of STXM to Microbial Bioweathering and Biomineralization''. In the interaction of bacteria with ferrihydrite nanoparticles, microenvironments that were very different than the bulk material were observed, showing that bulk thermodynamics may not be useful for predicting micro phases. Gordon also presented work showing that iron nanoparticles are attracted to the negatively charged bacteria and form a coating that reduces iron oxide minerals. The afternoon session started with presentations by Simon Mun and Hendrik Bluhm, who discussed the current status and the future plans for the two APPES end-stations at the ALS, which are located at Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2, respectively. In both end-stations, samples can be measured in gaseous environments at pressures of up to several Torr, which makes possible the investigation of numerous phenomena, in particular in the fields of atmospheric and environmental science as well as heterogeneous catalysis. Specific examples of the application of APPES were shown in the following presentations. John Hemminger (University of California, Irvine) reported on APPES investigations at Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 of the interaction of alkali halide surfaces with water. The measurements showed that upon deliquescense (when a layer of saturated solution is formed on the salt surface), the larger, more polarizable anions occupy the solution/vapor interface, which has great implications for the reactivity of, e.g., sea salt aerosols. Guido Ketteler showed results of APPES experiments on the adsorption of water on metal oxide surfaces, in particular on TiO{sub 2}(110) and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), at ambient temperatures and under Torr pressures. Both surfaces are important substrates in environmental science, and the measurements revealed that already at relative humidities below 1%, molecular water is present at these surfaces.

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  • Journal Name: Synchrotron Radiation News; Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 11; Related Information: Journal Publication Date: 2006

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  • Report No.: LBNL--59749
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 877690
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc880176

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  • February 1, 2006

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  • Sept. 21, 2016, 2:29 a.m.

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  • Dec. 16, 2016, 1:09 p.m.

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Bluhm, Hendrik; Gilles, Mary K.; Mun, Simon B. & Tyliszczak, Tolek. Novel Approaches to Soft X-ray Spectroscopy: Scanning TransmissionX-ray Microscopy and Ambient Pressure X-Ray PhotoelectronSpectroscopy, article, February 1, 2006; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc880176/: accessed September 24, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.