SOLAR RADIATION AND INDUCTION OF DNA DAMAGE, MUTATIONS AND SKIN CANCERS.

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An understanding of the effects of sunlight on human skin begins with the effects on DNA and extends to cells, animals and humans. The major DNA photoproducts arising from UVB (280-320 nm) exposures are cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. If unrepaired, they may kill or mutate cells and result in basal and squamous cell carcinomas. Although UVA (320-400 nm) and visible wavelengths are poorly absorbed by DNA, the existing data indicate clearly that exposures to these wavelengths are responsible, in an animal model, for {approx}95 % of the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Six lines of evidence, to be discussed in ... continued below

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SETLOW,R.B. May 10, 2007.

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An understanding of the effects of sunlight on human skin begins with the effects on DNA and extends to cells, animals and humans. The major DNA photoproducts arising from UVB (280-320 nm) exposures are cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. If unrepaired, they may kill or mutate cells and result in basal and squamous cell carcinomas. Although UVA (320-400 nm) and visible wavelengths are poorly absorbed by DNA, the existing data indicate clearly that exposures to these wavelengths are responsible, in an animal model, for {approx}95 % of the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Six lines of evidence, to be discussed in detail, support the photosensitizing role of melanin in the induction of this cancer. They are: (1) Melanomas induced in backcross hybrids of small tropical fish of the genus Xiphophorus, exposed to wavelengths from 302-547 nm, indicate that {approx}95% of the cancers induced by exposure to sunlight would arise from UVA + visible wavelengths; (2) The action spectrum for inducing melanin-photosensitized oxidant production is very similar to the spectrum for inducing melanoma; (3) Albino whites and blacks, although very sensitive to sunburn and the sunlight induction of non-CMM, have very low incidences of CMM; (4) The incidence of CMM as a function of latitude is very similar to that of UVA, but not UVB; (5) Use of UVA-exposing sun-tanning parlors by the young increases the incidence rate of CMM and (6) Major mutations observed in CMM are not UVB-induced.

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  • SOLAR RADIATION AND HUMAN HEALTH SYMPOSIUM; OSLO, NORWAY; 20070510 through 20070511

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  • Report No.: BNL--79392-2007-CP
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 918602
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc878960

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  • May 10, 2007

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  • Sept. 22, 2016, 2:13 a.m.

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  • Nov. 1, 2016, 5:39 p.m.

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SETLOW,R.B. SOLAR RADIATION AND INDUCTION OF DNA DAMAGE, MUTATIONS AND SKIN CANCERS., article, May 10, 2007; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc878960/: accessed October 16, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.