Structure Function Relationships of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase and Branching Enzyme: Manipulation of Their Genes for Alteration of Starch Quanlity and Quantity

PDF Version Also Available for Download.

Description

Conversion of the Potato tuber ADP-glucose Pyrophopshorylase Regulatory Subunit into a Catalytic Subunit. ADP-glucose synthesis, a rate-limiting reaction in starch synthesis, is catalyzed by ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGlc PPase). The enzyme in plants is allosterically activated by 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA) and inhibited by inorganic phosphate (Pi) and is composed of two subunits as a heterotetramer, a2b2. Subunit a is the catalytic subunit and subunit b is designated as the regulatory subunit.The b subunit increases the affinty of the activator for the catalytic subunit. Recent results have shown that the subunits are derived from the same ancestor subunit as the regulatory subunit can ... continued below

Creation Information

Preiss, Jack February 16, 2006.

Context

This report is part of the collection entitled: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports and was provided by UNT Libraries Government Documents Department to Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. More information about this report can be viewed below.

Who

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this report or its content.

Author

Sponsor

Publisher

Provided By

UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Serving as both a federal and a state depository library, the UNT Libraries Government Documents Department maintains millions of items in a variety of formats. The department is a member of the FDLP Content Partnerships Program and an Affiliated Archive of the National Archives.

Contact Us

What

Descriptive information to help identify this report. Follow the links below to find similar items on the Digital Library.

Description

Conversion of the Potato tuber ADP-glucose Pyrophopshorylase Regulatory Subunit into a Catalytic Subunit. ADP-glucose synthesis, a rate-limiting reaction in starch synthesis, is catalyzed by ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGlc PPase). The enzyme in plants is allosterically activated by 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA) and inhibited by inorganic phosphate (Pi) and is composed of two subunits as a heterotetramer, a2b2. Subunit a is the catalytic subunit and subunit b is designated as the regulatory subunit.The b subunit increases the affinty of the activator for the catalytic subunit. Recent results have shown that the subunits are derived from the same ancestor subunit as the regulatory subunit can be converted to a catalytically subunit via mutation of just two amino acids. Lys44 and Thr54 in the large subunit from potato tuber were converted to the homologous catalytic subunit residues, Arg33 and Lys43. The activity of the large subunit mutants cannot be readily tested with a co-expressed wild-type small (catalytic) subunit because of the intrinsic activity of the latter. We co-expressed the regulatory-subunit mutants with SmallD145N, an inactive S subunit in which the catalytic Asp145 was mutated. The activity of the small (catalytic) subunit was reduced more than three orders of magnitude. Coexpression of the L subunit double mutant LargeK44R/T54K with SmallD145N generated an enzyme with considerable activity, 10% and 18% of the wildtype enzyme, in the ADP-glucose synthetic and pyrophosphorolytic direction, respectively. Replacement of those two residues in the small subunit by the homologous amino acids in the L subunits (mutations R33K and K43T) decreased the activity one and two orders of magnitude. The wild-type enzyme and SmallD145NLargeK44R/T54K had very similar kinetic properties indicating that the substrate site has been conserved. The fact that only two mutations in the L subunit restored enzyme activity is very strong evidence that the large subunit is derived from the catalytic ancestor. Previous results showed that Asp145 in the small subunit of the wild-type is essential for catalysis, whereas the homologous Asp160 in the Large WT subunit is not. However, in this study, mutation D160N or D160E in the LK44R/T54K subunit abolished the activity, which shows the ancestral essential role of this residue and confirms that the catalysis of SmallD145NLarge K44R/T54K occurs in the L(b) subunit. A phylogenetic tree of the ADP-Glc PPases present in photosynthetic eukaryotes also sheds information about the origin of the subunits. The tree showed that plant Small and Large subunits can be divided into two and four distinct groups, respectively. The two main groups of S subunits are from dicot and monocot plants, whereas Large subunit groups correlate better with their documented tissue expression. The first Large-subunit group is generally expressed in photosynthetic tissues and comprises Large subunits from dicots and monocots. Group II displays a broader expression pattern, whereas groups III and IV are expressed in storage organs (roots, stems, tubers, seeds). Subunits from group III are only from dicot plants, whereas group IV are seed-specific subunits from monocots. These last two groups stem from the same branch of the phylogenetic tree and split before monocot and dicot separation. Thus few as two mutations turned the L subunit from Solanum tuberosum catalytic, showing that L and S subunits share a common catalytic ancestor, rather than a non-catalytic one. The L subunit evolved to have a regulatory role, lost catalytic residues more than 130 million years ago before monocots and dicots diverged, and preserved, possibly as a byproduct, the active site domain.

Language

Item Type

Identifier

Unique identifying numbers for this report in the Digital Library or other systems.

  • Report No.: None
  • Grant Number: FG02-93ER20121
  • DOI: 10.2172/876435 | External Link
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 876435
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc878775

Collections

This report is part of the following collection of related materials.

Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

What responsibilities do I have when using this report?

When

Dates and time periods associated with this report.

Creation Date

  • February 16, 2006

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Sept. 21, 2016, 2:29 a.m.

Description Last Updated

  • Nov. 7, 2016, 3:21 p.m.

Usage Statistics

When was this report last used?

Congratulations! It looks like you are the first person to view this item online.

Interact With This Report

Here are some suggestions for what to do next.

Start Reading

PDF Version Also Available for Download.

Citations, Rights, Re-Use

Preiss, Jack. Structure Function Relationships of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase and Branching Enzyme: Manipulation of Their Genes for Alteration of Starch Quanlity and Quantity, report, February 16, 2006; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc878775/: accessed August 19, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.