Source Inversion for contaminant plume dispersion in urban environments using building-resolving simulations

PDF Version Also Available for Download.

Description

Flow in urban environments is complicated by the presence of buildings, which divert the flow into often unexpected directions. Contaminants released at ground level are easily lofted above tall ({approx} 100 m) buildings and channeled through urban canyons that are perpendicular to the wind direction (see e.g., IOP 9 in Chan, 2005). The path of wind and scalars in urban environments is difficult to predict even with building-resolving computational fluid dynamics codes, due to the uncertainty in the synoptic wind and boundary conditions and other errors in the models. Given the difficulties due to the complexity of urban flows, solving ... continued below

Physical Description

PDF-file: 11 pages; size: 0 Kbytes

Creation Information

Chow, F K; Kosovic, B & Chan, S T November 4, 2005.

Context

This article is part of the collection entitled: Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports and was provided by UNT Libraries Government Documents Department to Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. More information about this article can be viewed below.

Who

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this article or its content.

Publisher

Provided By

UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Serving as both a federal and a state depository library, the UNT Libraries Government Documents Department maintains millions of items in a variety of formats. The department is a member of the FDLP Content Partnerships Program and an Affiliated Archive of the National Archives.

Contact Us

What

Descriptive information to help identify this article. Follow the links below to find similar items on the Digital Library.

Description

Flow in urban environments is complicated by the presence of buildings, which divert the flow into often unexpected directions. Contaminants released at ground level are easily lofted above tall ({approx} 100 m) buildings and channeled through urban canyons that are perpendicular to the wind direction (see e.g., IOP 9 in Chan, 2005). The path of wind and scalars in urban environments is difficult to predict even with building-resolving computational fluid dynamics codes, due to the uncertainty in the synoptic wind and boundary conditions and other errors in the models. Given the difficulties due to the complexity of urban flows, solving an inverse problem becomes quite challenging. That is, given measurements of concentration at sensors scattered throughout a city, is it possible to detect the source of the contaminant? The ability to locate a source and determine its characteristics in a complex environment is necessary for emergency response for accidental or intentional releases of contaminants in densely-populated urban areas. The goal of this work is to demonstrate a robust statistical inversion procedure that performs well even under the complex flow conditions and uncertainty present in urban environments. Much work has previously focused on direct inversion procedures, where an inverse solution is obtained using an adjoint advection-diffusion equation. The exact direct inversion approaches are strictly limited to processes governed by linear equations. In addition, they assume the system is steady-state and that the equations are linear (Enting, 2002). In addition to adjoint models, optimization techniques are also employed to obtain solutions to inverse problems. These techniques often give only a single best answer, or assume a Gaussian distribution to account for uncertainties. General dispersion related inverse problems, however, often include non-linear processes (e.g., dispersion of chemically reacting substances) or are characterized by non-Gaussian probability distributions (Bennett, 2002). Traditional methods also have particular weaknesses for sparse, poorly constrained data problems, as well as in the case of high-volume, potentially over-constrained and diverse data streams. We have developed a more general and powerful inverse methodology based on Bayesian inference coupled with stochastic sampling. Bayesian methods reformulate the inverse problem into a solution based on efficient sampling of an ensemble of predictive simulations, guided by statistical comparisons with observed data. Predicted values from simulations are used to estimate the likelihoods of available measurements; these likelihoods in turn are used to improve the estimates of the unknown input parameters. Bayesian methods impose no restrictions on the types of models or data that can be used. Thus, highly non-linear systems and disparate types of concentration,meteorological and other data can be simultaneously incorporated into an analysis. In this work we have implemented stochastic models based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling for use with a high-resolution building-resolving computational fluid dynamics code, FEM3MP. The inversion procedure is first applied to flow around an isolated building (a cube) and then to flow in Oklahoma City (OKC) using data collected during the Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment (Allwine, 2004). While we consider steady-state flows in this first demonstration, the approach used is entirely general and is also capable of dealing with unsteady, nonlinear governing equations.

Physical Description

PDF-file: 11 pages; size: 0 Kbytes

Source

  • Presented at: 86th American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, United States, Jan 29 - Feb 02, 2006

Language

Item Type

Identifier

Unique identifying numbers for this article in the Digital Library or other systems.

  • Report No.: UCRL-CONF-216903
  • Grant Number: W-7405-ENG-48
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 886928
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc876361

Collections

This article is part of the following collection of related materials.

Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports

What responsibilities do I have when using this article?

When

Dates and time periods associated with this article.

Creation Date

  • November 4, 2005

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Sept. 21, 2016, 2:29 a.m.

Description Last Updated

  • Dec. 9, 2016, 10:28 p.m.

Usage Statistics

When was this article last used?

Congratulations! It looks like you are the first person to view this item online.

Interact With This Article

Here are some suggestions for what to do next.

Start Reading

PDF Version Also Available for Download.

Citations, Rights, Re-Use

Chow, F K; Kosovic, B & Chan, S T. Source Inversion for contaminant plume dispersion in urban environments using building-resolving simulations, article, November 4, 2005; Livermore, California. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc876361/: accessed August 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.