SOME RECENT STUDIES IN RUGHENIUM ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND ELECTROCATALYSIS.

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Ruthenium is a metal of a considerable importance in electrochemical science and technology. It is a catalyst or co-catalyst material in Pt-Ru alloys for methanol- and reformate hydrogen-oxidation in fuel cells, while ruthenium oxide, a component in chlorine-evolution catalysts, represents an attractive material for electrochemical supercapacitors. Its facile surface oxidation generates an oxygen-containing species that provides active oxygen in some reactions. Ru sites in Pt-Ru catalysts increase the ''CO tolerance'' of Pt in the catalytic oxidation-reaction in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) and in reformate hydrogen-oxidation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The mechanism of Ru action is not ... continued below

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50 pages

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MARINKOVIC, N.S.; VUKMIROVIC, M.B. & ADZIC, R.R. August 1, 2006.

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Description

Ruthenium is a metal of a considerable importance in electrochemical science and technology. It is a catalyst or co-catalyst material in Pt-Ru alloys for methanol- and reformate hydrogen-oxidation in fuel cells, while ruthenium oxide, a component in chlorine-evolution catalysts, represents an attractive material for electrochemical supercapacitors. Its facile surface oxidation generates an oxygen-containing species that provides active oxygen in some reactions. Ru sites in Pt-Ru catalysts increase the ''CO tolerance'' of Pt in the catalytic oxidation-reaction in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) and in reformate hydrogen-oxidation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The mechanism of Ru action is not completely understood, although current consensus revolves around the so-called ''bifunctional mechanism'' wherein Ru provides oxygenated species to oxidize CO that blocks Pt sites, and has an electronic effect on Pt-CO interaction. While various studies of polycrystalline Ru go back several decades those involving single crystal surfaces and the structural sensitivity of reactions on Ru surfaces emerged only recently. Using well-ordered single crystalline surfaces brings useful information as the processes on realistic catalysts are far too complex to allow identification of the microscopic reaction steps. In this article, we focus on progress in model systems and conditions, such as electrochemistry and electrocatalysis on bare and Pt-modified well-ordered Ru(0001) and Ru(10{bar 1}0) single-crystal surfaces. We also review current understanding of the mechanistic principles of Pt-Ru systems and a new development of a Pt submonolayer on Ru support electrocatalyst. Ruthenium crystallizes in a hexagonal close-packed structure, (hcp). Figure 1.1 shows the two single crystal surfaces of Ru. The Ru(0001) surface possesses the densest, i.e. hexagonal arrangement of atoms, Fig. 1.1a. The other plane, Ru(10{bar 1}0), can have one of the two terminations of the surface atoms, Fig. 1.1b. One termination can be described as a stepped surface with a trigonal arrangement of atoms in two-atom-long terraces with a step of the same orientation; the other termination is a square-symmetrical arrangement of atoms in two-atom-long terraces with the same orientation of atoms in steps. In the faced-centered cubic (fcc) system, these three structures are uniquely defined and labeled as (111), (110), and (210), respectively.

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50 pages

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  • Report No.: BNL--76970-2006-BC
  • Grant Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886
  • Office of Scientific & Technical Information Report Number: 893013
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc876054

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Reports, articles and other documents harvested from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information.

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  • August 1, 2006

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  • Sept. 21, 2016, 2:29 a.m.

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  • Dec. 12, 2016, 8:22 p.m.

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MARINKOVIC, N.S.; VUKMIROVIC, M.B. & ADZIC, R.R. SOME RECENT STUDIES IN RUGHENIUM ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND ELECTROCATALYSIS., book, August 1, 2006; [Upton, New York]. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc876054/: accessed November 21, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.