Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report Page: 88 of 222
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1. Opacity shall not exceed 20 percent.
2. Particulate emissions shall not exceed 0.11 pounds per
million BTUs or 16.97 tons per year for wood waste
combustion. , Particulate emissions shall not exceed
0.0003 pounds per million BTUs or 6.001 tons per year
for oil combustion.
Installation of baghouse filters and cyclones will reduce partic-
ulate emissions during the grain processing phase and later during by-product pro-
cessing. Also, an ethanol producer should employ standard grain industry practices to
avoid respiratory healthy hazards to workers and explosion hazards stemming from
grain dust (Solar Energy Research Institute, November 1980).
b. Cooking, Fermentation, Distillation and Dehydration
During fermentation, large amounts of carbon dioxide will be
generated. Oak Ridge estimates the Model Plant described above will produce 5895
kilograms per hour (51,465 tons per year) of carbon dioxide (Oak Ridge National Labora-
tory, June 1981). There are presently no limits on atmospheric emission of carbon
dioxide (Kentucky Agricultural Energy Company, undated). Use of water scrubbers and
absorption filters should remove most of the unpleasant odor associated with fermen-
tation gases. The atmospheric effluent will primarily be carbon dioxide and also will
contain approximately 1.5 percent water, 0.4 percent ethanol and 0.25 percent alde-
hyde. Currently there are no air emission standards for ethanol.
During the distillation and dehydration stages of the ethanol
production process, small amounts of hydrocarbons will be vented to the atmosphere.
No mitigation will be needed. Section 166 of the Clean Air Act requires the EPA to
study hydrocarbons and to issue regulations by 1981 if needed. At the preserit-time, no
emissions limitations are placed on hydrocarbons, however, there is a federal ambient
air quality standard of 160 u g/m3.
c. Production of Geothermal Fluid
The geothermal brine will be flashed to steam in two stages to
produce the steam required -Jor ethanol production (see Section 5.5). At each stage
hydrogen sulfide might be discharged to the atmosphere. The quantity of discharge is
unknown at this time, however, because little information is available on the chemical
constituents of the brine. Hydrogen sulfide emissions are not monitored or restricted in
the San Luis Valley at present. Much of the hydrogen sulfide contained in the geo-
thermal fluid could be removed by a Stretford process or other abatement system, if
the hydrogen sulfide content of the brine makes installation of such a system necessary.
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Hewlett, E.M.; Erickson, M.V.; Ferguson, C.D.; Sherwood, P.B.; Boswell, B.S.; Walter, K.M. et al. Commercial production of ethanol in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final Report, report, July 1, 1983; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc874948/m1/88/: accessed January 19, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.