U.S. Support Program Contributions to the Implementation of IAEA Safeguards Page: 5 of 11
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Similar assistance was provided to help the IAEA establish the open source collection and analysis
program. During Programme 93+2, the USSP provided access to information analysis tools such as
WATSON and PATHFINDER. WATSON was supported by Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory, and PATHFINDER was supported by Pacific Northwest and Los Alamos National
Laboratories. In both cases, USSP contractors placed the software on Agency computers,
customized the software as necessary, and evaluated the software based on the IAEA's needs.
Although these tools were not adopted, the IAEA conducted field trials and learned about the
technology. USSP consultant Carlton Thorne worked with experts from other member states to
assist the IAEA with early analysis projects and with the adoption of information collection
techniques. Following these efforts, the USSP and other member states provided open source
experts who advised the IAEA on tools and techniques that could be adapted for the IAEA's
program. Around 2000, the USSP began to work with the Monterey Institute for International
Studies to provide interns for open source information collection. Interns have formed the
foundation of the IAEA's open source information program by assisting with the collection of
information. The USSP also helped the IAEA to evaluate the usefulness of numerous sources of
open source information. The use of satellite imagery for safeguards purposes was also introduced
during this period, and the USSP provided a CFE with expertise in satellite imagery analysis to help
the IAEA develop its program.""
The IAEA's investigation of environmental sampling began with a series of field trials conducted
with the assistance of MSSPs in the early 1990s. The USSP's early contribution involved providing
experts to participate in the field trials and providing training in the collection of environmental
samples. The United States provided funding for the IAEA's Clean Laboratory at Seibersdorf,
Austria, which was built between 1994 and 1997. Richard Perrin, a USSP CFE with expertise in
analytical chemistry, served as the project manager for the clean laboratory construction. He
oversaw the planning, design, and construction and advised the IAEA on necessary procedures and
reference materials. USSP CFEs assisted the IAEA with the development of the Environmental
Sample Database, which is used to store information regarding environmental samples, and with the
early analysis of environmental samples. The USSP provided technical assistance on requirements
for quality assurance for environmental sample handling, analysis, and archiving, and together with
other MSSPs, support the IAEA in evaluating Wide Area Environmental Monitoring techniques and
technology for broader IAEA applications. Since the mid-1990s, the USSP periodically provided
references materials to the IAEA through the U.S. national laboratories."X
Throughout its history, the USSP has provided support to the IAEA for the establishment of training
programs and specific training for IAEA inspectors in subjects related to traditional safeguards
activities such as nuclear material measurement, enrichment, and containment and surveillance.
Because the focus on safeguards inspections would expand to include verifying the absence of
undeclared activities as part of Programme 93+2, the IAEA reviewed its Safeguards Training
Programme to ensure that it would meet the needs of the future. Recognizing that inspectors would
have to be more observant of their surroundings, the IAEA and Pacific Northwest Laboratory
developed a new course called Basic Visual Observational Skills Training." This course introduced
and helped inspectors to understand the change in their role brought about by Programme 93+2 and
to develop some of the skills needed to be successful in the new safeguards regime. The USSP also
helped the IAEA explore computer-based training (CBT) as a new delivery mechanism. In 1996,
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E., Pepper S. U.S. Support Program Contributions to the Implementation of IAEA Safeguards, article, July 14, 2013; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc868768/m1/5/: accessed February 18, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.