The Muon Collider (Sandro’s Snake) Page: 2 of 14
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The Muon Collider
Alessandro G. Ruggiero
Brookhaven National Laboratory
July 22, 1992
In the quest for the Higgs bosons, a muon collider may be conceived as the experimental
device more affordable and more feasible than electron-positron or very large hadron col-
liders, like NLC, CLIC, SSC and LHC. Muons have a mass ten times lighter than protons
and are therefore easier to be steered on circular trajectories. On the other side their mass
is a hundred times heavier than electrons and their motion is considerably less affected by
the synchrotron radiation.
Muons are elementary lepton particles, with no internal structure. Like the electrons, they
have obvious advantages over the hadron counterpart when they are used as they main
projectiles for the production of the Higgs bosons. Moreover, because of their larger mass,
they are also better suited than the electrons themselves, due to a considerably larger prop-
Unfortunately, muons do not exist in nature and they have to be produced with the only
technique we know these days: impinging an intense beam of protons on a target. This will
cause muon production, but with a very large volume of the phase space. Like in the case
of the production of antiprotons, in order to make the beam of some use for the subsequent
collisions, muons also have to be collected and cooled to a sufficiently high intensity and
small beam dimensions, before they can be accelerated and injected in the collider proper.
To make the situation more complicate, there is also the fact that muons are intrinsically
unstable particles with a very short lifetime. Accumulation, cooling, acceleration and all
other required beam manipulations are then to be executed extremely fast if one requires
that a large fraction of the particle beam survives to the collision point.
This paper describes a feasibility study for the design of a muon collider. Recognized the
fact that the particle lifetime increases linearly with the energy, we have adopted a scheme
where steps of cooling and acceleration are entwined. We have indeed found convenient to
accelerate the beam as fast as possible to increase its chances of survival, and necessary to
dilute the action of cooling throughout the entire accelerating process to make it more
effective and affordable. All acceleration and cooling steps are executed in a single pass
The Muon Collider
July 30, 1992
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Ruggiero, A. G. The Muon Collider (Sandro’s Snake), report, July 1, 1992; United States. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc863578/m1/2/: accessed January 22, 2019), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries Government Documents Department.